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Article Critique Assignment
Formal research studies follow a systematic research process. The quality of a research study lies
within all stages of the study research process. This assignment aims at integrating the major
basic research processes in quantitative research concepts.
Select any quantitative nursing research article you are interested in. Compare and comment on
the various sections of the study based on the ideal steps of the research process. Choose the
study from a journal probably peer reviewed journal not a mere internet site. Ensure that the
chosen article will enable you answer the questions the critique assignment should address.
Based on the steps of an ideal research process, read and critique the entire study using the
information from Chapter 12 of the course book. Provide definitions and explanation of
applicable step of the research process before each critique. Reference cited statements from
course textbook and the research study are needed to support each of the sections critiqued.
Adhere to the evaluation of the Evaluation of Scholarly Paper Rubric.
Questions to address:
Problem Statement and Purpose of Study
o Identify the problem statement and/or purpose of the study
o Is the problem significant to nursing?
o Does the purpose narrow and clarify the aim of the study?
Literature Review
o Does the literature review demonstrate progressive development of ideas through
previous research? What is the relationship of this study to similar previous studies in the
literature review?
o Does the literature review provide a rationale (gap) and direction for the study?
o Are the findings of previous studies used to generate the research problem and purpose?
Theoretical Framework
o Is a theoretical knowledge base (framework) developed for the problem and purpose? If a
framework is provided, is it adequate to explain the phenomenon of concern?
Objectives, Research Questions and hypotheses
o Identify the hypotheses or research questions
o Are the objectives, questions, or hypotheses expressed clearly?
o Are the objectives, questions, or hypotheses logically linked to the research purpose and
o Identify Research Variables-Independent and dependent variables of the study.
o Are the variables conceptually and operationally defined?
Research Method/Design
o Identify the quantitative research design of the study
o Is the design used the most appropriate to obtain the needed data?
o Is the design logically linked to the sampling method and statistical analyses?
o Describe the subjects being studied with inclusion and exclusion criteria
o Are any subjects excluded from the study based on age, socioeconomic status, or race,
without a sound rationale?
Sample Size
Identify the sampling method used in the study.
Is the sampling method adequate to produce a representative sample?
Were the sampling criteria appropriate for the type of study conducted?
Was power analysis used to determine sample size?
Ethical Considerations
o Are the rights of human subjects protected?
o How were consents obtained? Are there any other ethical considerations?
Data Collection
o What are the data collection methods? Are the data collection methods ethical?
o Are the instruments clearly described?
o Are validity and reliability of the instruments described?
Data Analysis
o What statistical measures were used in data analysis?
o Are data analysis procedures appropriate to the type of data collected?
What are the results or findings of the study?
Are findings discussed in relation to each objective, question, or hypothesis?
Are the findings clinically significant?
How much confidence can be placed in the study findings?
o Do the conclusions fit the findings from the analyses?
o Are conclusions based on statistically significant and clinically significant results?
o To what populations can the findings be generalized?
o What are the study limitations? Are there limitations the researcher did not identify?
Implications for practice and future Research
o Does the author indicate the implications of the findings for practice?
o Discuss how the research findings can be applied to nursing practice
o Does the author indicate the implications of the findings for further research? What future
research can be envisioned?
Article Critique Quantitative Research
Mankah Vegah
Bowie State University
Dr. Doris Scott
Quantitative Research Evaluation
The study that is selected for this quantitative research evaluation is;
“Albers, G., Francke, A.L., de Veer, A.J., Bilsen, J. and Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D., 2014.
Attitudes of nursing staff towards involvement in medical end-of-life decisions: a national survey
study. Patient education and counseling, 94(1), pp.4-9”.
This study is conducted by Albers et al. in the year 2014 and the authors of this research
have provided a clear introduction to the research study. The purpose of conducting study and
focus area of this research clearly defined Albers, G., Francke, A.L., de Veer, A.J., Bilsen, J. and
Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D., (2014.). This study has been conducted to get an understanding
about the attitude and involvement of nurses in making the end-life decisions for patient that has
a great impact on counselling and education of patients. Regarding the focus of study, the
authors have provided a clear understanding about ageing, chronic diseases, end life decisions,
required attitudes, diversified role of nurses, burdens on nurses and impact of their attitude on
quality of care provided to patients. This research has demonstrated the role of nurses in
management of quality of life of patients suffering from chronic conditions and how different
attitude of nurses affect end of life decision making. The study has also evaluated the need of
considering attitudes of nurses in decision making process and characteristics of works and other
demographic features in work setting. The critical analysis of this paper is focused on evaluation
different parts of this research paper to get an estimation about quality of research analysis and
sense is clear. Critical analysis of research aim, objectives, problem statement, framework and
methodology, significance and other important elements are critically analyzed to evaluate
quality of research paper.
Problem Statement
Albers, G., Francke, A.L., de Veer, A.J., Bilsen, J. and Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.,
(2014). provide a clear problem statement for their research study. The clear statement of aims of
research is imperative for conducting a research study that can provide clear outcomes.
Moreover, critical review of this study demonstrates that author have described key question area
along with description of variables that are to be used in research paper. This paper has a
problem statement regarding investigation of attitude of nursing staff members regarding the
involvement of nurses in making decision to improve quality of life of people with chronic
illness and at last stage of life. Dine, C. J., McGaghie, W. C., Bordage, G., & Shea, J. A.(2015).
Taking into consideration, research aims, purpose, and variables is imperative to provide an indepth understanding about topic area of research and develop research questions. As stated by
different research studies that research questions are developed regarding objectives, purpose and
hypotheses of study and questions should be effective to ensure validity of research. As this
study is based on attitude of nursing and thus research questions were focused on the attitude of
nurses regarding the process of decision making.
Variables are required to be focused to provide answers to different research question and
the research questions of this study provided explanation of different variables. Identification of
appropriate research questions is imperative in the quantitative research to describe relation
between different variables. The variables that are related to this research study are the attitude of
nurses towards care of patient at end of life stage are role of nurses in decision making process
for such patients, the work-related characteristics affecting this process and impact of
sociodemographic features on decision-making process. The prime focus is on attitude of nurses;
however, it is crucial to consider impact of work related characteristics and demographic factors.
This study is therefore considered as effective to assist the professionals in making effective
decision making for patient of end of life stage .Dine, McGaghie Bordage & Shea (2015).
Literature Review
The term literature review is used to describe the phenomenon of extraction of literature
on the topic of research that can assist in orienting direction of reviewers or readers towards topic
area of discussion. Identification and development of appropriate knowledge about research
questions and hypothesis is possible by the literature section of research (Aveyard, 2014). The
importance of literature review and presenting it in the start of the quantitative study is related to
description of significance of research study by using evidences from previously conducted
studies and theoretical frameworks from other studies.
Albers, G., Francke, A.L., de Veer, A.J., Bilsen, J. and Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.,
(2014). have described literature review of studies at the start of research. Farrugia, P., Petrisor,
B. A., Farrokhyar, F., & Bhandari, M. (2010) have critically apprised importance of providing
literature review at start of research study that is significant approach to link reader with purpose
of research and support significance of research study. In the respective study under critical
evaluation, a logical sequence is followed to provide review of research studies that are related to
study. Providing an initial discussion about nursing attitude in decision making process, the
literature extracted from different relevant studies is presented to describe impact of nursing
attitude in medical end-of-life decisions. In addition to literature section, literature review has
also been presented in background and this is based on concept developed from other evidencebased studies. The researchers have described impact of different attitudes of nurses on their
involvement in decision making processes. The researchers of this study have also presented
relation of research aims of this study with other studies. In addition, the researchers have also
presented evidence of nursing attitudes on their involvement in different process and relation of
job characteristics and sociodemographic features on this process. The researchers have also
provided the details of already used models and use of this framework in this research study. The
study has presented justification for choice of research framework along with description of
different determinants.
In addition, this literature review presents critical evaluation of different attitudes of nurse and
other factors that affect their involvement in making decision for patient at end of life stage.
Previously published studies has provided significance of carrying out determinant analysis. A
high quality literature review present summaries of previously conducted studies and provide
review of literature gap and methodological problems (Aveyard, 2014). The study has not
described literature gap which is a limitation of this research study.
Theoretical framework and Hypothesis
The importance of research frameworks is that it demonstrates the concepts that are
related to research study. In this research study, the researchers have used conceptual framework
and concepts were developed by considering previous studies. To analyze different determinants,
the conceptual framework was developed and thus researchers instead of using previous
framework have developed their own framework that is justified from studies presented in
literature review. The researchers have described the concepts related to study that forms a
conceptual framework for this study, but a clear presentation of theoretical framework is not
provided in form of figures or other illustrations Shields, P. M., & Rangarajan, N. (2013). The
clear rationale of developing concept and justification had presented in this research.
The researchers have explained research aims and questions despite of presenting
research hypothesis. This study is conducted to evaluate nurses’ attitude regarding the
involvement on decision making process and thus this concept was enough and hypothesis is not
required to be mentioned. The inclusion of hypothesis is based on aim of research and in
quantitative studies, absence of hypothesis is not a deficiency of research.
The quantitative methodology was used for this research. Quantitative research is a
research methodology that is used for collection of data by observation, case study or surveys
from the respective population and in respective area of research. As focus of this research of
nurses’ attitude regarding involvement in decision making for medical end of life and thus, the
use of quantitative approach for this study is effective. The researchers of this study has provided
a clear explanation for the use of quantitative approach for this research study. Variables and
concepts used in this study are described and quantitative method used for these variables is
survey based on questionnaire Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2013).
The critical evaluation of this study has presented potential threats that can affect validity
of research is selection of appropriate participants for research or designing questions for this
research. As this is related to response collection from nurses about their attitudes, so there are
some chances of bias that may affect quality of research. To resolve this issue, initial
interrogation was carried out to describe purpose of research and only those participants were
considered eligible that responded to researchers in a positive manner. The questionnaire were
distributed to these nurses. Moreover, to ensure quality of research approach used for data
collection, a pilot study was conducted on few participants. As more than one researchers are
involved in this method, thus chances of variability of inter-observer findings are more DePoy,
E., & Gitlin, L. N. (2015). For this research, the participants were asked to fill postalquestionnaire which is a reliable method to collect data that is free from any kind of bias.
Critically evaluation of any quantitative study is also based on evaluation of sampling
technique and sample size of study. This was survey study and the sample population selected
for this research study is efficient to meet aims and objectives of this research (Creswell, 2013).
The critical review has demonstrated that sample population for this research study was selected
based on the role of nurses in the critical decision making for patients with chronic illness. The
total sample population comprised for this research study was 903 and responsive were 587 that
is appropriate to get outcomes that can be generalized. Moreover, the sample population were
nurses from different health care settings, nursing homes and hospitals. The nurses selected from
different health care setting provides different views and thus can be used to present results.
Among these participants, the responsive participants were 587 and the response rate was low to
some extent. It is clear from this research study that selection of appropriate sample size has
provided assistance and sample, sample population and sample size was approved by the panel.
The instrument used for collection of data for this research study is questionnaire and
method is survey method. Survey via questionnaire is an appropriate method to collect the
information regarding behavior of nurses. This questionnaire was designed by using Likert’s
scale and thus, validity is more. In order to ensure reliability and validity of this instrument, a
pilot study using this questionnaire was conducted on some participants. The expert panel has
approved authenticity and appropriateness of questionnaire. Albuquerque, U. P., Ramos, M. A.,
de Lucena, R. F. P., & Alencar, N. L. (2014).
Data Analysis
The critical evaluation of data analysis section of this research has provided that the
analysis method that is used in this study is descriptive statistics. This analysis method is used to
present key characteristics of nursing staff as well as demographic factors affecting attitude of
nurses regarding their involvement in medical decision-making for patient at end of life stage.
This analysis method is effective and reliable approach as the questionnaire was based on Likert
scale. The logistic regression model was used for each question to present results. In the analysis
section, five responses for each question were condensed into three before conducting
descriptive statistics (Ott & Longnecker, 2015). Data analysis used for research should be
efficient to achieve high quality results for the study and this is carried out by researchers of this
This is an important section of research and the results of this study are related to
conceptual framework of the study. As the data was obtained from large sample size, so it can be
used to demonstrate the research questions. The critical evaluation of result section has also
provided evidences that regression model was used for evaluation of data collected from patients.
The outcomes of this research are presented in the form of tables that make understanding of
result efficient. As large data is presented for results, thus, it is strength of research that it can be
utilized for presenting best outcomes and findings that can be used in health care settings
(Treiman 2014).
Discussion/ Conclusion
The discussion and conclusion part of this research study was focused on the research
articles related to research questions of this study. Moreover, discussion session provided a detail
of weaknesses and strength of research study with respect to other research studies. This section
is effective and researchers have also provided some recommendations that can be used for
future studies. As a large sample size was used to carry out this research study with use of
appropriate method and tool for data collection, thus practical implications of this research study
are more (Aveyard, 2014).
Research Utilization Implications
As this research is based on sufficient information that is required for any research study,
thus it qualifies scientific merit and can be used as a reference to carry out other research studies.
The ideas provided about perception and attitude of nurses and impact of job characteristics and
other features and this information can be used in health care setting. The outcomes of this
research has provided a clear understanding about nursing attitudes that can be used to evaluate
on decision making process. Albers, G., Francke, A.L., de Veer, A.J., Bilsen, J. and OnwuteakaPhilipsen, B.D., (2014.). The practical implications of this research described at the end of
document are effective to provide strengths to this quantitative research study. The potential
limitations related to this research are low as compared to strength, thus can be implemented in
Albers, G., Francke, A.L., de Veer, A.J., Bilsen, J. and Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D., 2014.
Attitudes of nursing staff towards involvement in medical end-of-life decisions: a
national survey study. “Patient education and counseling”,94(1), pp.4-9
Albuquerque, U. P., Ramos, M. A., de Lucena, R. F. P., & Alencar, N. L. (2014). Met …
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