Assignment 2: Whitepaper on Food SecurityDue Week 7 and worth 110 pointsThe members of the United Nations found great value in the whitepaper you provided on population growth. They are now asking you to expand the whitepaper to include global food security as it relates to population growth and poverty. Read the overview and provide an assessment based on the questions below.I.Overview We can define global food security as the effort to build food systems that can feed everyone, everywhere, and every day by improving its quality and promoting nutritional agriculture (1). That said, there are certain practices that can advance this project:Identifying the underlying causes of hunger and malnutritionInvesting in country-specific recovery plansStrengthening strategic coordination with institutions like the UN and the World BankEncouraging developed countries to make sustained financial commitments to its successWe must bear in mind that more than 3 billion people—nearly one-half of the world’s population—subsist on as little as $2.50 a day, with nearly 1.5 billion living in extreme poverty on less than $1.25 a day. According to the World Health Organization, the United Nations, and other relief agencies, about 20,000 people (mostly children) starve to death in the world every day, for a total of about 7 million people a year. In addition, about 750 million (twice the population of the United States) do not have access to clean drinking water, meaning that some one million people die every year from diarrhea caused by water-borne diseases.The earth’s population has grown since it reached 7 billion in 2010. It is expected to reach 8 billion in 2025, 9 billion in 2040, and 11 billion by the end of the 21st century (2). If the demand for food is predicted to rise 50% by 2030 and 70% by 2050, the real problem is not necessarily growing enough food, but rather making that amount available to people. Moreover, food illnesses are prevalent, with nearly 600 million reported cases of foodborne diseases each year. These mainly affect children but can also negatively impact the livelihood of farmers, vendors, trade associations, and ultimately, can reduce the Gross Domestic Product (national income) of a country. These issues can impose tremendous human, economic, social, and fiscal costs on countries, so addressing them allows governments to devote more resources to making desperately needed infrastructure improvements that raise the quality of life for everyone.It is not enough to have adequate supplies of food available. Policies that focus exclusively on food production can exacerbate the problem, particularly if, to satisfy the need for quantity, the quality of the food is left wanting.Reasons for Food InsecurityCertainly, poverty and the contributing systemic internal conditions are the driving factors behind keeping adequate food resources from reaching people, but it is only one of several. Others are discussed next.Inadequate Food Distribution: The reality is that there is more than enough food in the world to feed its people, but the primary cause of famine is not poor weather conditions as much as it is getting the food to the people who need it most. Quite often, disruptions in food distribution result from political instability and poor infrastructure (such as poorly functioning port facilities, lack of transportation options, and inadequate road networks). Paradoxically, although the world’s population is increasing, the amount of potential food available will increase along with it, due mostly to advances in bio-agricultural engineering and seed immunity to molds. Writing in the late 18th century, Thomas Malthus warned that the global population would exceed the earth’s capacity to grow food, in that while the population would grow exponentially, food production would grow only arithmetically. Although this theory was proved invalid, its propagation has unfortunately resulted in some governments rationalizing political choices that avoid helping the poverty-ridden and starving.Political-Agricultural Practices: The widespread use of microbiological, chemical, and other forms of pesticides in food continues to be a serious issue throughout the global food chain. Widespread use of fertilizers also causes illness in millions of people every year, not only from the food itself, but from run-off into streams and rivers, contaminating entire water supplies. The human, social, fiscal, and economic costs of such practices impede improvements not only in the raising of crops, but in their distribution. Added to this, the rising demand in developed countries for biofuels, refined mostly from corn and soybean, reduces the amount of arable land devoted to producing food.The failure of many farmers in the developing world to rotate their crops harms the replenishing of nutrients necessary to continue growing crops. In addition, neglecting to allow land to remain fallow exhausts the soil, making it much more difficult to raise a decent amount of food per acre the following growing season. Economic Issues: The fact is, government policies that focus on growing cash crops, for example, are designed solely to export them to earn foreign exchange. This may be fine for the government in its effort to earn money, but the result is that farmers end up growing for foreign markets and not domestic ones, leading to shortages of necessary staples. Consequently, the poorest of the population are frozen out of the local markets because they cannot afford the food that remains to be sold (3).Civil Strife: Civil war can interrupt the flow of food from gathering depots, such as ports, to distribution centers where it can be handed out to people. During the 1990s, Somalia was particularly hard hit by their civil war, as clans fought for control of the main port at Mogadishu, which affected the flow of food to the rest of the population. In this case, as with many civil wars, whoever controls the supply of food controls the country. In failed and failing states like Zimbabwe, Congo, Haiti, South Sudan, Yemen, and Libya, food is very often another weapon used by one segment of the population against another.Sources:1.Peter Timmer. 2015. Food Security and Scarcity: Why Ending Hunger Is So Hard. Foreign Affairs magazine.2.The United Nations Population Division. 2017. World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. https://www.un.org/development/desa/publications/world-population-prospects-the-2017-revision.html 3.Will Martin. November 2010. Food Security and Poverty: A Precarious Balance. Let’s Talk Development blog by The World Bank. http://blogs.worldbank.org/developmenttalk/food-security-and-poverty-a-precarious-balanceII.AssessmentThe issue is not the lack of food in the world, but the access to food. In many developing countries, the food shortage is due to governmental control over food. These governments maintain control and preference by limiting access of nutritious food to certain groups, thereby weaponizing food.In this second assignment, research the impact of poverty on global food security and the potential technological solutions. Write a minimum of four pages (not including the cover letter) assessing the impact of food insecurity. Select one country from the United Nations list of developing countries to use as an example throughout your assessment. The completed version of this assignment will include the following items:Cover page: Include your name, title of course, name of the developing country you have chosen from the UN list, current date, and the name of your instructor.Introduction: Introduce the topic of the whitepaper (half-page minimum).One-page (minimum) answers to each of the following questions (for a total of three pages):What is food insecurity, and what role does population growth play in it?What specific factors interrupt the flow of food from the source to the people in the developing country you selected?What forms of technology can be used to reduce hunger and improve food security? Explain how these technological solutions would work.Note: Give examples in your responses to each of the above questions as it relates to the developing country you have chosen.Conclusion: A one-half page (minimum) conclusion.Cite at least five credible sources excluding Wikipedia, dictionaries, and encyclopedias for your assessment. A brief list of suggested resources has been provided at the end of the course guide.This course requires use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different compared to other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details. (Note: You’ll be prompted to enter your Blackboard login credentials to view these standards.)The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Propose a plan to address the issue of global food security in underdeveloped countries that considers the impact of prior solutions.Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic/organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric. I have attached the 1st paper to this.
Unformatted Attachment Preview
RUNNING HEAD: THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH
The Impact of Population Growth
THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH
The impact of population growth
From our current rate of population increase, there are speculations that we are
consuming resources that are of 1 and a half times those available on earth. This is risky since
this planet is all we have. The current trend shows an increasing population that is continuously
getting us closer to the depletion of our finite resources (Cline, 1992). The effects the population
as it growths is increasingly projecting to the demand of the resources from the planet. Taking
India as an example, we find that the problem of coping with overpopulation here has led to a
severe struggle in the country’s economy. The overpopulated regions of India have resulted in
poverty, illiteracy, poor sanitation, poor waste management as well as other unpleasing factors.
Unlike the developed countries that the UN can account for, India faces an epidemic crisis such
as hunger and deaths due to poor distribution of food, insufficient education, insufficient medical
supplies and increase in government’s debts (Gitlitz, 2018).
Greenhouse gases and their contribution to global warming
Greenhouse gases are a composition of gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect.
This effect is as a result of a warming climate which is caused by the atmosphere’s ability to trap
heat from the sun from leaving into outer space as it bounces off the surface (Kelley & Schmidt,
1995). There are certain gases within the atmosphere that act as a glass shield, allowing the solar
radiation to enter into the earth’s atmosphere but not leave. Gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2),
water vapor, nitrous oxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are contributing
components to the greenhouse effect (Dietz & Rosa, 1994).
There are endless human activities currently happening around us that change the natural
greenhouse. Activities such as the burning of substances like oil and coal have led to an increase
THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH
in the amount of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. This is due to the chemical
reaction in the burning process where coal or oil combine carbon (C) together with oxygen (O)
present to form carbon dioxide (CO2) as a greenhouse gas. The concentration of other gases such
as methane (CH4) has been as a result of other human activities like land clearing for agriculture
or even from industries (Tarlach, 2018).
The exchange of carbon dioxide is being observed as a continuous process from the
oceans, atmosphere as well as on land. The production of this gas is happening under the cycle of
numerous organisms, plants as well as animals. The substantial contribution of carbon dioxide
into the atmosphere has made it possible to trap more heat from leaving the earth’s surface
resulting in the global warming effect. Under the auspices of the UN, an Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change concluded that 95% of the warmed planet had been contributed by human
activities (Gitlitz, 2018). This lies within the probability that the carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide
and methane gases produced by human activities have resulted in an increase in temperature over
the last few decades.
Challenges imposed by emissions of greenhouse gases
India’s economy very much depends on the climate since most of its Gross Domestic
Product contribution is from agricultural activities. There have been some significant economic
costs experienced in this country due to droughts as well as flooding which has affected the
livelihood of the majority of the population. The country has been experiencing challenges in
adapting to climate changes which have resulted in some deficits in the important initiatives that
need to be taken by the government. Future climate changes resulting from global warming due
to greenhouse gas emissions would cause more economic, political and social threats to the
country in terms of how best to share the available resources among the growing population.
THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH
As a result of these effects, India currently experiences a deficit in energy supply,
agricultural resources, water supply in densely populated areas and poor infrastructure. Strategies
to ensure fewer emissions and adaption procedures would reduce the impacts caused by climate
changes due to the effect of the emissions. The critical political, social and economic growth for
India can be easily cut short due to the ongoing climate vulnerability. This might further continue
to negatively implicate their economy, poverty reduction strategies as well as other development
plans (Dietz & Rosa, 1994).
The biggest offenders
The top offenders in India are the industries generating and using fossil fuels, the
transport industries and the institutions that foster deforestation. These offenders are working for
their own profits by engaging in climate risks that deteriorate the safety of the local population
(Cline, 1992). The level of consumption of the products being produced by these industries
pushes the extent of their operations to a dangerous level in order to sustain the population.
The control of population growth on a global level
The current estimation of the global population is about 7 billion, with a prediction of a
million more in roughly every five days. The estimate done by the United Nations shows an
increase of up to 11 billion at the beginning of the next century. The risk posed by this increase is
towards the sustainability of the population with the available planetary resources.
India contributes to one of the countries with the highest birth rates globally. The effects
of the country being overpopulated have resulted in a scramble for the resources available in the
country as well as other adverse health risks such as HIV/AIDS. The high fertility rate has
contributed to the rapid growth of the population despite the tragic circumstances (Kelley &
Schmidt, 1995). For such a case, there are no guaranteed methods of controlling population
THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH
growth. The global diversity of cultures makes it challenging to get people on a common ground
about the effects of such growth in numbers and how to deal with it. A background procedure on
ensuring a shot at population control would be to educate the public. This would bring an easy
realization towards the population about the current state of the climate and why it is essential to
make sure that the available population does not replenish it for the coming generations.
As another measure of control, the United Nations has continuously rolled out awareness
plans that promote family planning programs. Irrespective of the cultural and religious beliefs
against it, the overall shared goal is to make sure that the population can be sustained by the
resources available (Tarlach, 2018). In addition to family planning and other healthy forms of
contraception, women empowerment, especially in their education, could play a significant role
in ensuring reduced population growth. Their empowerment would enlighten them to choose a
number of children they want and at what age.
There are possible strategies that can be implemented to ensure that there is global
stability as well as a sustainable development towards natural resources. Human activities
towards changing to more efficient and environmentally friendly activities could substantially
decrease the level of greenhouse gases emitted, therefore reduce global warming. A reasonable
economic cost contributed to education would reduce unnecessary childbirths and control the
global population towards manageable rates. Increased level of poverty and hunger in developing
countries is a significant concern for the United Nations. Lack of establishing adaptive strategies
would result in further concerns about hunger in the overpopulated countries. For other
productive strategies, educating young adults about the risks of early pregnancy would play a
vital role in ensuring a controlled population growth.
THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH
Cline, W. R. (1992). The economics of global warming. Institute for International Economics,
Washington, DC, 399.
Dietz, T., & Rosa, E. A. (1994). Rethinking the environmental impacts of population, affluence
and technology. Human ecology review, 1(2), 277-300.
Kelley, A. C., & Schmidt, R. M. (1995). Aggregate population and economic growth
correlations: the role of the components of demographic change. Demography, 32(4),
Ehrlich, P. R., & Holdren, J. P. (1971). Impact of population growth. Science, 171(3977), 12121217.
Gitlitz, G. (2018). Opinion: The pernicious climate dictum–don’t mention
Tarlach, G. (2018). Mass Extinctions. http://discovermagazine.com/2018/jul-aug/massextinctions
Larry LeDoux. (2018). Does Population Growth Impact Climate
Purchase answer to see full