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Aim: Describe the internal structure, bonding of atoms and molecules and to understand the mechanical properties of materials. Task 1: Write the report on questions mentioned below for Tire treads/styrene butadiene rubber product. Write a report based on following points. a. Knowledge and understanding of the topic: i) List any 5 important properties of the material of the selected product. Define each of them. Write the safe and limiting specifications of these properties for the selected product. State the equipment used for measuring this property. ii) Atomic structure, crystal structure and type of bonding affects the properties of material. Comment on this statement and justify it for the selected product. b. Application and analysis of the topic (Module specific Skill): i) State any 10 applications of the selected material used in other industries. ii) Suggest possible material that can be used in the selected product in future. Support your recommendation with correct reasoning. iii) Write in short brief the latest development and application in the material of the selected product. c. The Report structure in terms of logic and coherence: Report structure should have a clear start and a clear end. Information within submissions should also be logical and well grouped. Report structure should include introduction, methodology/Analysis, applications, conclusion, citation, figure sources & referencing. Avoid grammar and spelling mistakes. *** Words count = 1400 words. *** In-Text Citations and References using Harvard style. *** I’ve uploaded attachment named “Example” you can refer to it to know the structure.
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ZINC CARBON BATTERY
Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………….2
Macroscopic and Microscopic Structure of the Materials………………………………………………………………….2
Applications of the Materials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
Future Advancements in the Uses of the Materials………………………………………………………………………….5
Latest Advancements in the Use of the Materials…………………………………………………………………………….5
conclusion………………………………………..
Reference………………………………………………..5
Zinc Carbon Battery
Introduction
The zinc-carbon battery, also known as the dry cell, is one of the simplest forms of battery and it forms the very basis of today’s battery industry. It is composed of zinc can housing
and carbon electrode, and a cathode mix made up of a powder of manganese dioxide. It provides power ranging from 1.4 volts to 1.7 volts and this value reduces as the life of the battery
fades away. The main components making up these batteries are zinc and carbon.
Zinc is a low melting point metal that is found in the group 12 of the periodic table. It has
received immense application both industrially and biologically. Some of its elemental properties
that give it its unique characteristics are as listed below;
Table 1: Elemental properties
Atomic number
30
Atomic weight
65.39
Melting point
4200 C
Boiling point
9070 C
Density
7.133 g/cm3
Oxidation state
+2
Electron configuration
[Ar]3d104s2
Zinc is slightly more abundant within the earth’s crust than copper, and it mainly occurs
as zinc blende, smithsonite, or hemimorphite. It also occurs in the human body especially in
blood cells where it is concentrated for the manufacture of some enzymes. Zinc also plays a
major role in insulin storage in the pancreas. The major industrial uses of zinc include galvanization of iron sheets and steel bars against corrosion by oxidation, and manufacturing of brass
and other alloys for use in different engineering applications. Zinc, just like aluminum, forms a
protective layer of oxide on its surface when it is exposed to oxidation thus preventing corrosion
of the inner layers.
Carbon occurs as the sixth element in the modern periodic table and has an atomic
number of 12. It is the most abundant element on earth as it is the building block of many structures be it the rocks of the earth’s crust, the bodies of animals, or the atmosphere. In solid form,
it mainly exists into allotropic forms namely graphite and diamond. The properties of carbon are
as shown below;
Formula/ symbol
C
Classification
Non-metal
Melting point
3500
Boiling point
4827
Color
Black in color but in the diamond form it is
clear
2.267 g/cm3 in graphite form and 3.513 g/cm3
Density
in diamond form
Macroscopic and Microscopic Structure of the Materials
Zinc has two electrons in its outermost energy level thus meaning that it has an oxidation
number of two. It has a BCC crystal structure, and this gives it great crystallographic stability.
Industrial zinc mainly exists as brass. It shares an ionic bond with non-metals and shares a me-
tallic bond with other metals such as copper.
Carbon occurs as the sixth element in the modern periodic table and has an atomic number
of 12. It is the most abundant element on earth as it is the building block of many structures be it
the rocks of the earth’s crust, the bodies of animals, or the atmosphere. In solid form, it mainly
exists into allotropic forms namely graphite and diamond. Graphite consists of carbon atoms
that are covalently bonded in layers that are joined together using weak van der Waals forces.
These forces are so weak that the layers tend to slide over each other giving graphite its unique
lubricative property. As for diamond, every electron in the carbon structure is covalently bonded
Figure 1
to another atom forming a strong three-dimensional structure. This explains why diamond is one
of the hardest substances on earth today and hence its applications in the manufacture of drilling, boring, and cutting machinery and tools. Carbon also exists in the earth’s crust in the form
of hydrocarbons which has received numerous applications such as fuel, manufacture of plastics and pharmaceuticals, among others. In summary, carbon is the most important element in
the modern world. Carbon has up to nine more allotropes besides just graphite and diamond.
These allotropes are collectively known as lamp-black referring to the fine powder produced
from a burning flame as the heat extracts carbon from the fuel.
Figure 2
Applications of the Materials
Zinc is mainly used in the galvanization of iron and steels. It is also used in the manufacture of alloys and the manufacture of zinc-carbon batteries, zinc-air batteries, and zinc-manganese batteries and the making of fertilizers, explosion-proof equipment, pigments, pharmaceuticals, paints, and rubber.
The most widespread use of carbon is its roles in organic chemistry where it is used in
the production of fuels, pharmaceuticals, dies and paints, engineering plastics, among others.
The secret behind the success of carbon is that it contains up to 4 active bonding sites that enable a carbon atom to bind with up to four other atoms to form a pentagon structure (diamond).
Activated carbon is an important element of filters that are used in water purification systems.
Graphite is mainly used in the manufacture of pencils, diamonds are used in the manufacture of
hard tools and jewelry. Carbon black is used in the absorption of light, coal is used in heating
and power generation, graphite is applied as a lubricant, carbon dating is used in the estimation
of time, and coke is used as a reducing agent in the metal refining industry.
Future Advancements in the Uses of the Materials
Zinc has proved to be an effective element in the manufacture of batteries; hence it is
expected that more developments in this area of application will be made. Zinc oxide is also expected to advance with the manufacture of equipment such as zinc oxide nanorod sensors, piezoelectric applications, and spintronics currently under research.
The use of carbon fiber across various industries is expected to keep on increasing. This
branch of carbon science has quite a bright future. Other advancements such as carbon nanotubes for use in the development of batteries are also expected to become a reality soon which
would significantly improve electrical heating, electrical conductivity, electromagnetic shielding,
among others. Carbon is very flexible; hence its uses are expected to become a lot more than
they are currently. The use of carbon in batteries is particularly interesting and is expected to
increase because of the resistance to corrosion of the element.
Latest Advancements in the Use of the Materials
Zinc has made large strides in the medical field whereby it has been used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and equipment that help with brain function and neurology. Zinc has
also witnessed a significant leap in its application in the battery manufacturing sector.
The use of carbon fiber in today’s auto industry is one of the most revolutionary applications of carbon. Carbon fiber offers a better strength-to-weight ratio than most metals, and it is
also chemically inert and not susceptible to chemical corrosion of any kind.
Conclusion : To sum up zinc carbon battery is being popularly used during last 100 years ,
which its the main commercial dry cell batteries, however its also high quality , good product
and can be used in many life package .
Reference :
Doitpoms.ac.uk. (2019). DoITPoMS – TLP Library Batteries – • Zinc/carbon batteries. [online]
Available at: https://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/batteries/batteries_zn_c.php [Accessed 26 Apr.
2019].
Electrical4U. (2019). Zinc Carbon Battery |Types of Zinc Carbon Battery | Advantages and Disadvantages | Electrical4U. [online] Available at: https://www.electrical4u.com/zinc-carbon-battery/ [Accessed 26 Apr. 2019].

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