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An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to help you on the research paper which is due later on. The brief description and citation is then placed inside an outline. Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research. The annotated bibliography becomes the foundation of your paper.Locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic or will support your thesis. You must choose at least 15 sources, the majority of which must be dated within the last three years and have come from our library resources. Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style and place it within the appropriate part of your paper (i.e. introduction, body, discussion, etc.)Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic or support your thesis.
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EXAMPLE:
1. Introduction
Introductory statement: The last couple of years has seen an increase in the number of bla
bla
bla …………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………. (Here you set the stage and give background about the topic you plan to
discuss/analyze in the thesis.) Then you list the articles you plan to use in the introduction
and the main information that you plan to use from the article.
Purpose/Thesis/claim/argument:
You begin this section with the thesis. A thesis statement focuses your ideas into one or two
sentences. It should present the topic of your paper and also make a comment about your
position in relation to the topic. Your thesis statement should tell your reader what
the paper is about and also help guide your writing and keep your argument focused.
2. Body/Discussion:
After choosing an appropriate topic and writing a thesis statement, you will need to
brainstorm to get ideas on how to best support your thesis. The length of your paper will
determine the level of detail you should pursue in your supporting content. When you have
honed the results of your brainstorming down to a suitable number of subtopics, you can
arrange them in the order you feel would be most effective in arguing your thesis statement.
1. First Subtopic: Write something here ……………………………..
1. Supporting evidences
1. Second Subtopic: Write something here………………..
1. Supporting evidences.
Template:
1. Introduction
2. Introductory Statement
3. Thesis Statement
4. Body
First Subtopic
1. supporting evidence
2. supporting evidence
3. supporting evidence.
Second Subtopic
Third Subtopic
References
SAMPLE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Annotated Bibliography
1. Introduction
Since 2015, an influx in human migration has caused implications within the entire
European Union. Due to an increase in violent war crimes, political instability, and
human torture, civilians of Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq are relocating in order to save
their lives. Of the many originating nations, Syria’s social and political hostility is mainly
responsible for the unprecedent surge in European migration. In 2016 alone, etcetera….
EU migrant crisis: facts and figures. (2017). European Parliament. Retrieved from:
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/society/20170629STO78630/eumigrant-crisis-facts-and-figures (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
In order to understand the current statistics regarding the European refugee crisis,
definitions must be explained regarding incoming European migrants. According to the
European Parliament, a refugee is defined as “…people with a well-founded fear of
persecution for reason of race, religion, nationality, politics, or membership of a
particular social group who have been accepted and recognized as such in their host
countries.”
Nulla facilisi. Pellentesque in nunc id metus condimentum laoreet. Pellentesque habitant
morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Donec mollis
faucibus scelerisque. Cras semper velit sit amet ligula vestibulum, ac scelerisque est
elementum. Nam lorem elit, ultricies quis fermentum id, elementum eget metus.
Maecenas nec nisl urna. Fusce finibus molestie sapien a aliquam. Sed nec sapien in dui
luctus interdum ut in tortor. Nulla mollis tortor id eros sollicitudin aliquet. Vestibulum
euismod dui gravida mi faucibus, non malesuada eros egestas. Nunc aliquam egestas
ipsum, finibus hendrerit mauris sagittis sed. Ut scelerisque ultricies dolor sed iaculis. Duis
convallis dictum nulla non mattis.
Sly, L. (2015). 8 reasons Europe’s refugee crisis is happening now. The Washington Post.
Retrieved from:
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/09/18/8-reasons-whyeuropes-refugee-crisis-is-happening-now/?utm_term=.83a75ff97342 (Links to an external
site.)Links to an external site.
There are many reasons backing the influx in European refugees. However, the largest
influencer is the political instability in Syria. With the intensity of the Syrian war
increasing and death tolls rising, many civilians are looking to escape their social hostility
and torture. Furthermore, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s government has begun
enlisting army reserves to serve in protecting his power in office. Lorem ipsum dolor sit
amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec dignissim luctus semper. Pellentesque venenatis
quam sagittis condimentum finibus. Vivamus rhoncus quam nec venenatis maximus.
Aliquam tempor lorem sollicitudin metus tincidunt tempor. Pellentesque vestibulum
lectus laoreet congue ornare. Donec eget erat nisi. In efficitur malesuada lectus a eleifend.
Nulla iaculis fermentum erat dictum blandit. Fusce maximus nunc vitae sapien pulvinar,
vitae tincidunt nunc rhoncus. Sed consequat libero ipsum, rhoncus volutpat mauris
fringilla non. Fusce ac purus consequat, ultricies ipsum a, congue libero.
Ensor, J. (2017). More than 8,000 lives lost crossing the Mediterranean in the two years
since
Alan Kurdi’s death. The Telegraph. Retrieved
from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/09/01/8000-lost-crossing-mediterraneantwo-years-alan-kurdis-death/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Refugees around the world engage in dangerous transportation methods in order to
receive international protection. In addition to the risks associated with their livelihood
in their home nations, these asylum seekers are not completely safe once beginning their
journey to Europe. Since 2015, more than 8,000 refugees and migrants have died Lorem
ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec dignissim luctus semper.
Pellentesque venenatis quam sagittis condimentum finibus. Vivamus rhoncus quam nec
venenatis maximus. Aliquam tempor lorem sollicitudin metus tincidunt tempor.
Pellentesque vestibulum lectus laoreet congue ornare. Donec eget erat nisi. In efficitur
malesuada lectus a eleifend. Nulla iaculis fermentum erat dictum blandit. Fusce maximus
nunc vitae sapien pulvinar, vitae tincidunt nunc rhoncus. Sed consequat libero ipsum,
rhoncus volutpat mauris fringilla non. Fusce ac purus consequat, ultricies ipsum a,
congue libero.
Purpose/Thesis/Claim/Argument:
Since the inauguration of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad in 2011, political instability
and government torture have inspired refugees to search for a higher quality of life
within surrounding nations. Today’s mass migration of refugees towards Europe have
resulted in severe breaches to national security, health, and human dignity concerns. The
European refugee crisis has resulted in socio-political, legal, and cultural implications
around the world.
2. Body/Discussion
First Subtopic: The endless political implications in Syria and differences within EU
member states.
Supporting Evidence: To fully understand refugees’ desire to migrate to Europe, I will
first describe the political instability in Syria, causing mass migrations and disruptions
within the unity of EU.
Summers, H. (2017). War and violence drive 80% of people fleeing to Europe by sea, not
economics. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/globaldevelopment/2017/jul/07/war-and-violence-drive-majority-of-people-fleeing-to-europeby-sea-not-economics (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Recently, there has been a common misconception that most refugees are fleeing to
Europe in order to gain more economic opportunities. However, studies have shown that
over 80% of European refugees are fleeing due to the persecution, war, and famine issues
within their originating nations. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.
Donec dignissim luctus semper. Pellentesque venenatis quam sagittis condimentum
finibus. Vivamus rhoncus quam nec venenatis maximus. Aliquam tempor lorem
sollicitudin metus tincidunt tempor. Pellentesque vestibulum lectus laoreet congue
ornare. Donec eget erat nisi. In efficitur malesuada lectus a eleifend. Nulla iaculis
fermentum erat dictum blandit. Fusce maximus nunc vitae sapien pulvinar, vitae
tincidunt nunc rhoncus. Sed consequat libero ipsum, rhoncus volutpat mauris fringilla
non. Fusce ac purus consequat, ultricies ipsum a, congue libero.
Why is there a war in Syria? (2018). BBC. Retrieved from:
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-35806229 (Links to an external site.)Links
to an external site.
The majority of refugees are fleeing from the violence and terror within Syria. In order to
better assist in the political implications of my paper, I will use this article to demonstrate
the current political issues found in Syria. Political conflicts in Syria began to emerge in
2011 due to high unemployment and governmental corruption that lead to limited
political freedom. In March 2011, several pro-democratic demonstrations began to erupt
within Syria. In response to the protests, Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur
adipiscing elit. Donec dignissim luctus semper. Pellentesque venenatis quam sagittis
condimentum finibus. Vivamus rhoncus quam nec venenatis maximus. Aliquam tempor
lorem sollicitudin metus tincidunt tempor. Pellentesque vestibulum lectus laoreet congue
ornare. Donec eget erat nisi. In efficitur malesuada lectus a eleifend. Nulla iaculis
fermentum erat dictum blandit. Fusce maximus nunc vitae sapien pulvinar, vitae
tincidunt nunc rhoncus. Sed consequat libero ipsum, rhoncus volutpat mauris fringilla
non. Fusce ac purus consequat, ultricies ipsum a, congue libero.
Ellyatt, H. (2018). Europe remains as divided as ever over ‘almost impossible to solve’
migration
crisis. CNBC. Retrieved from: https://www.cnbc.com/2018/06/25/europe-dividedoveralmostimpossible-to-solve-migration-crisis.html (Links to an external site.)Links to
an external site.
With millions of refugees migrating into Europe, the most prominent political issue is the
lack of unity between EU member states. In June, European countries met at the
European Union summit in Brussels to discuss the needs and responsibilities all EU
member states face in fighting illegal migration. German Chancellor, Angela Merkel,
discussed the need for unity by stating “We all agree that we want to reduce illegal
migration, that we want to protect our borders and that we are all responsible for all
issues.” Despite the collective desire, Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing
elit. Donec dignissim luctus semper. Pellentesque venenatis quam sagittis condimentum
finibus. Vivamus rhoncus quam nec venenatis maximus. Aliquam tempor lorem
sollicitudin metus tincidunt tempor. Pellentesque vestibulum lectus laoreet congue
ornare. Donec eget erat nisi. In efficitur malesuada lectus a eleifend. Nulla iaculis
fermentum erat dictum blandit. Fusce maximus nunc vitae sapien pulvinar, vitae
tincidunt nunc rhoncus. Sed consequat libero ipsum, rhoncus volutpat mauris fringilla
non. Fusce ac purus consequat, ultricies ipsum a, congue libero.
Second Subtopic: In addition to political instability, social implications have arisen
regarding the health of migrants and citizens within European nations.
Supporting Evidences: The previous environment and lack of medical institutions within
the originating nations of refugees has enabled antibiotic resistance and immune
deficiency diseases that pose implications on their physical health and the surrounding
civilians within their future host countries.
Maltezou, H. (2016). Antibiotic resistance and the refugee crisis in europe – preemptive
action is
indicated. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 14(2), 69-70.
doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2016.03.009. https://lynn.on.worldcat.org/oclc/6024140597 (Links to
an external site.)Links to an external site.
This article illustrates the primary causes of the European Refugee crisis and the effects
this crisis has on the health of individual residence. After completing a scientific
evaluation of many European refugee migrants, this study determined that up to 25% of
these refugees tested positive for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,
consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec dignissim luctus semper. Pellentesque venenatis quam
sagittis condimentum finibus. Vivamus rhoncus quam nec venenatis maximus. Aliquam
tempor lorem sollicitudin metus tincidunt tempor. Pellentesque vestibulum lectus laoreet
congue ornare. Donec eget erat nisi. In efficitur malesuada lectus a eleifend. Nulla iaculis
fermentum erat dictum blandit. Fusce maximus nunc vitae sapien pulvinar, vitae
tincidunt nunc rhoncus. Sed consequat libero ipsum, rhoncus volutpat mauris fringilla
non. Fusce ac purus consequat, ultricies ipsum a, congue libero.
Kousoulis, A., Ioakeim-Ioannidou, M., & Economopoulos, K. (2017). Refugee crisis in
Greece:
Not a one-country job. International Journal of Public Health: International Journal of
Public Health,62(1), 1-2. doi:10.1007/s00038-016-08900. https://lynn.on.worldcat.org/oclc/6947799984 (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site.
This article describes the detrimental health effects that Greece has endured and the need
for international intervention in order to assist the potential global implications on all EU
civilizations. The epidemic of health concerns is due to Syria’s recent conflicts of
medicine shortage, reemergence of polio, and widespread famine and malnourishment.
Resulting from Syria’s recent turmoil, Greece is left fighting diseases and other immune
deficiencies that have entered their borders. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur
adipiscing elit. Donec dignissim luctus semper. Pellentesque venenatis quam sagittis
condimentum finibus. Vivamus rhoncus quam nec venenatis maximus. Aliquam tempor
lorem sollicitudin metus tincidunt tempor. Pellentesque vestibulum lectus laoreet congue
ornare. Donec eget erat nisi. In efficitur malesuada lectus a eleifend. Nulla iaculis
fermentum erat dictum blandit. Fusce maximus nunc vitae sapien pulvinar, vitae
tincidunt nunc rhoncus. Sed consequat libero ipsum, rhoncus volutpat mauris fringilla
non. Fusce ac purus consequat, ultricies ipsum a, congue libero..
Supporting evidence: In addition to antibiotic resistance and immune deficiency diseases,
refugees continue to face sexual and reproductive health risks after their immigration
into Europe.
Finnerty, F., & Shahmanesh, M. (2016). Sexual and reproductive health in the european
refugee
crisis. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 92(7), 485-486. doi:10.1136/sextrans-2016052538. https://lynn.on.worldcat.org/oclc/6924363967 (Links to an external site.)Links to
an external site.
This article describes the sexual and reproductive health of refugees during the migration
periods. In the majority of originating refugee countries, sexual-based and gender-based
violence is a common trend. Due to their susceptibility, the United Nations Population
Fund (UNFPA) estimated that 1400 of the 70,000 women that crossed boarders as
immigrating migrants would be at risk for sexual violence (Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,
consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec dignissim luctus semper. Pellentesque venenatis quam
sagittis condimentum finibus. Vivamus rhoncus quam nec venenatis maximus. Aliquam
tempor lorem sollicitudin metus tincidunt tempor. Pellentesque vestibulum lectus laoreet
congue ornare. Donec eget erat nisi. In efficitur malesuada lectus a eleifend. Nulla iaculis
fermentum erat dictum blandit. Fusce maximus nunc vitae sapien pulvinar, vitae
tincidunt nunc rhoncus. Sed consequat libero ipsum, rhoncus volutpat mauris fringilla
non. Fusce ac purus consequat, ultricies ipsum a, congue libero.
Supporting evidence: Incoming refugees pose severe implications on the mental health
conditions of rescue workers within their asylum-seeking nations. The largest mental
health concern facing all refugees and workers are the detrimental effects of PostTraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
Sifaki-Pistolla, D., Chatzea, V., Vlachaki, S., Melidoniotis, E., & Pistolla, G. (2017). Who
is
going to rescue the rescuers? post-traumatic stress disorder among rescue workers
operating in greece during the european refugee crisis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric
Epidemiology, 52(1), 45-54. doi:10.1007/s00127-016-13028. https://lynn.on.worldcat.org/oclc/6924634136 (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site.
This article also provides more data regarding the extent of the European refugee crisis in
showing the percentages of originating countries. The origins of these refugees are
predominately from: Syria (49%), Afghanistan (26%), and Iran (16%). In addition to the
data, this article also examined the estimated cases of post-traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD) within rescue workers operating in Lesvos. In recent years, Lorem ipsum dolor sit
amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec dignissim luctus semper. Pellentesque venenatis
quam sagittis condimentum finibus. Vivamus rhoncus quam nec venenatis maximus.
Aliquam tempor lorem sollicitudin metus tincidunt tempor. Pellentesque vestibulum
lectus laoreet congue ornare. Donec eget erat nisi. In efficitur malesuada lectus a eleifend.
Nulla iaculis fermentum erat dictum blandit. Fusce maximus nunc vitae sapien pulvinar,
vitae tincidunt nunc rhoncus. Sed consequat libero ipsum, rhoncus volutpat mauris
fringilla non. Fusce ac purus consequat, ultricies ipsum a, congue libero..
Third Subtopic: The current legal framework of the European Union regarding asylum
seekers and the concerns for border security throughout all European nations.
Supporting evidence: Border control has been a concern for all European nations;
however, the EU has lacked collective support leading to inefficient methods of border
patrol and regulation.
Hatton, T. (2017). Refugees and asylum seekers, the crisis in europe and the future of
policy. Economic Policy, 32(91), 447-496. doi:10.1093/epolic/eix009
Link to reference later: https://lynn.on.worldcat.org/oclc/7102700812 (Links to an
external site.)Links to an external site.
This article describes the relationship between the European asylum system and the
hazardous maritime and overland crossings that migrants must face in order to gain
security. Furthermore, this article also illustrates the effects of lacking international
support that poses severe implications on border control. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,
consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec dignissim luctus semper. Pellentesque venenatis quam
sagittis condimentum finibus. Vivamus rhoncus quam nec venenatis maximus. Aliquam
tempor lorem sollicitudin metus tincidunt tempor. Pellentesque vestibulum lectus laoreet
congue ornare. Donec eget erat nisi. In efficitur malesuada lectus a eleifend. Nulla iaculis
fermentum erat dictum blandit. Fusce maximus nunc vitae sapien pulvinar, vitae
tincidunt nunc rhoncus. Sed consequat libero ipsum, rhoncus volutpat mauris fringilla
non. Fusce ac purus consequat, ultricies ipsum a, congue libero.
Supporting evidence: In addition to border control, the European Union has lacked unity
regarding asylum seeking legislation, leading to additional concerns for some European
nations.
Nancheva, N. (2015). The common european asylum system and the failure to protect:
Bulgaria’s syrian refugee crisis. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 15(4), 439-455.
doi:10.1080/14683857.2015.1093372
Link to reference later: https://lynn.on.worldcat.org/oclc/5996666225 (Links to an
external site.)Links to an external site.
This article will be used to further explain the EU asylum system, the difficulties it
presents, and the lack of unity between all EU states. The asylum system can be better
described as an inverted triangle. The bottom of the triangle lies the non-refoulement
principle which protects refugees from returning back to their original nation if he/she
faces potential torture and death. The next level of the asylum system is the variety of
customary international laws. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing …
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