Chat with us, powered by LiveChat BUS497 California Impact of Canceling NAFTA On Business Strategy in Agriculture Industry Memo | All Paper

READ INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.Predicting the impact of canceling the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on overall Business Strategy in the California agriculture industryKey Themes- Briefly discuss the development, purpose, and formalization of Business Strategy.-Discuss the role of any relevant public policy and/or government legislation, and the possible impact on the evolution of Business Strategy, in California agriculture-Discuss how the end of NAFTA might change the ways that Agri-business Strategy is developed and implemented in California, over the next 5 to 10 years- Make specific business policy recommendations for the agriculture industry, over the next 5 to 10 yearsNOTE:Please follow the “Memo Requirements Checklist” (attached below) closely. I also included a “sample solo memo” – it is the exact same topic, so please make sure you DO NOT COPY IT EXACTLY but please COPY FORMAT EXACTLY. Despite what the checklist says it needs to be 12 pt Roman font, a minimum of 3 pages and maximum of 4 pages. Please INCLUDE Appendix, similar to what is included in the “sample solo memo”. I also attached “how to write a concise memorandum” as provided by the professor, you can review it briefly. Here are some resources for the paper, please review them, most of them are short videos. Use SOME of them whichever you seem fit. BUT ALSO FIND SOME OUTSIDE SOURCES: to reference this article)



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Students of BUS 497-A
CSUN / Nazarian College of Business & Economics
Blaine D. Pope, Ph.D.
Lecturer, BUS 497-A
SUBJECT: How to Write a Concise and Effective Memorandum
(A memo about writing memos)
27 January 2018
This paper concerns how to present ideas through the medium of a memorandum—a
concise form of written business communication, designed to summarize information
and highlight potential action items quickly. This means of communication can be found
in a wide array of professional settings. In the body of the document you are reading
here, the medium is also part of the message. Notice the structure of this document.
Follow it, practice it, and you should have little problem in writing a clear and effective
office memorandum over the course of your career.
Memoranda can be on almost any topic but in each case the basic idea remains the
same: to condense and simplify material for quick reading, and to facilitate
organizational decision-making.1 Therefore, in this class, your memos should always
contain suggested next steps (or action items) in the final section—“Conclusions” and/or
IMPORTANT: The overall page length for your memos is a minimum of three (3) and a
maximum of four (4) single-spaced pages. If you exceed the upper limit, I simply won’t
read past the fourth page.
Memos should not usually be flowery or overly prosaic. When writing in memo format, it
is okay (even encouraged) to use relatively dry language or wording. The idea here is
to let the true power of your ideas (the underlying concepts the words should be
conveying) speak for themselves. This can best be done by highlighting your ideas
according to the following simple format—just like in you PowerPoint executive briefings
There is also an organizational historical dimension to memo writing. For further details, see the definition and
origins of the Latin word, “Memorandum” in the Appendix section.
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/ presentations. The same basic principles apply in each case—simplicity. Less can be

Basic identifying information: name and titles (and possibly the work units) of
individuals involved, plus date, subject or topic at the top of the first page (see
above); and page numbers typically at the bottom of the page. This is
especially important for historical purposes. People who have never met you
may read your memos months—or even years—later. This basic identifying
information can help set some of the organizational context for those readers.

Come to the point, immediately: wording along the lines of “This is a paper
on/about/concerning . . . “ should usually be your first sentence. But by all
means, it must be somewhere in your first paragraph. This is not negotiable.

Use “Overview-Details-Conclusions/Recommendations” format: in much the
same way that we employ executive briefings via PowerPoint, give your readers
the brief overview of the issue(s), followed by the details explaining the
importance of the issue(s), followed by your conclusion and/or recommended
next steps.

Consider itemizing an array of solutions: it’s one thing to eloquently identify
problems; but, from a supervisor’s or a chief executive’s perspective, the next
thought is typically something like, “Oh, okay, so what do your recommend we
do about this issue?” Supervisors also usually like choices: consider an array of
three (3) options.

Option 1: a reasonable choice, but not necessarily the one you most favor.
Option 2: a choice you might not advocate or actually prefer
Option 3: the choice you are actually recommending; the action you are
Then, having noted your own recommendation or choice, briefly explain to your
reader why you are recommending it.

Consider using sub-headings, to highlight certain key ideas: again, the basic
idea is ease of viewing / reading.

Quotes: typically, any quote that would take up more than two full lines of text
on a regular page should be indented (see appendix).

Avoid run-on sentences like the plague: an example of a run-on sentence is a
sentence that just seems to go on and on without any kind of pause or break
because the writer just seems to have so much to say in that particular
sentence so every idea that he or she thinks is important at that precise
moment—just like a brand new beautiful pair of shoes that deep down inside
you actually know are too small for your feet—must somehow come-Hell-orPage 2 of 12
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B. Pope, BUS 497-A
high-water be crammed in to that space. [This is a run-on sentence. Simple
rule of thumb, if you have to pause to take a breath, then you probably need a
period at that point; or at least a semi-colon. Break your long and rambling
thoughts into two or more sentences. You reader will appreciate that.]

Use white space on the page wisely: same reason as above, ease of viewing
for your readers. Just like with PowerPoint, too much text that appears
crammed together on a page is not a good thing.

Appendixes: for purposes of our class, anything you cannot fit into your 4-page,
single-space page limit, you can put into an appendix. Remember that this is
merely supporting material that can help to bolster your argument. For
purposes of this class, this optional section has no page limits. This might also
be a good place to include charts, graphs, or other forms imagery, which help
support your basic points, and recommendations.
The “Conclusions” and/or “Recommendations” section should initially restate your
introductory sentence (which states “This paper is about X,Y, Z”). But you should feel
free to embellish it, slightly, based on the strong case you’ve hopefully presented to
your readers. In many ways, you’re selling something here: you’re selling your ideas.
So, feel free to be somewhat “forceful” in your conclusion section (but don’t go over the
top with this idea!). You should be subtly forceful, here. Think of it as “soft power,” in
your wording.
The main idea of any good office memorandum should be to convey an array of ideas
(even complex ideas) as simply as possible. But, when analyzing problems or
challenges, it is also important to provide recommendations or solutions—even if they
are only tentative. Present your readers with proposed options. This conveys to them
the feeling of being the decision-makers; however, you retain the power to “guide” your
decision-makers toward the recommendation(s) you would actually like to see
Finally, please note: it’s not always the “best ideas” that get approved. Instead, it is
those ideas which are most clearly conveyed in the minds of viewers, listeners, and
readers. Ultimately—in business just like in politics—the “best ideas” end up being the
ones that finally got approved and implemented. This memo writing assignment is an
exercise conveying ideas clearly and effectively, so that your ideas will hopefully be the
ones chosen for implementation. Follow these simple steps, and you should do well in
your business writing, both in this class and elsewhere.
Blaine Pope
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(Use the appendix to supply what you think might be supplementary-but-helpful
information to support your position(s). Remember, in writing memoranda, you are in
the business of selling ideas. So try to avoid unnecessary material, even here!)
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Please follow these general guidelines, using APA (American Psychological
Association) format, when citing references. APA is a common format across a wide
range of academic fields. It is not the only format, however. In general, when citing
references, just try to remember the who-what-when-where format.
Who published the material (author’s name)?
What is the name of the material (the title of the book, article, book chapter, or URL)?
When was it published?
Where was it published (the name of the publisher, or web site, if relevant)?
Image source:
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Memorandum Defined
mem·o·ran·dum (from Latin)
noun: memorandum;
plural noun (Latin): memoranda;
plural noun (English) : memorandums
definition: a note or record made for future use.
“the two countries signed a memorandum of understanding on economic cooperation”
synonyms: message, communication, note, email, letter, missive, directive; more
a written message, especially in business or diplomacy.
“he told them of his decision in a memorandum”
synonyms: message, communication, note, email, letter, missive, directive
Law: a document recording the terms of a contract or other legal details.
late Middle English: originally from Latin, literally ‘something to be brought to mind,’
gerundive of memorare .
The original use was as an adjective, placed at the head of a note of something to be
remembered or of a record made for future reference.
Adapted from:
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How MBA students should not approach business writing!
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Proper use of Quotations
Proper use of quotations is also very important. Again, bear in mind the underlying
concept or principle: ease of viewing and/or reading. With that in mind, it is important to
know when / how to offset quotes from other writers from your own writing.
Brief quotes:
For an example of a brief quote, I will actually quote myself, from page 2 of this memo,
above: “typically, any quote that would take up more than two full lines of text on a
regular page should be indented.” Since this quoted sentence was less than two full
lines of regular text, there is no need to indent it. It appears in italics simply to highlight
it, for your ease of viewing here. Don’t use italics if it’s not really necessary, however.
Longer quotes (more than 2 lines of text):
Longer quotes: indent two (2) tab spaces. The following extended quote comes from
my own 2007 Ph.D. dissertation. I am discussing the theory behind something called
“world-systems analysis” (which I shortened to “WSA,” in this section), put forward by
the American sociologist, Immanuel Wallerstein. I was required to use the formatting
style of the American Psychological Association (APA); a virtual industry standard in
many (but not all) of the social sciences.
Beginning of Excerpt
In this section on the approach to WSA, it is important to define our terms
before proceeding further. According to Wallerstein (2000), WSA entails the
The argument of world-systems analysis is straightforward. The three
presumed arenas of collective human action—the economic, the political,
and the social or socio-cultural—are not autonomous arenas of social
action. They do not have separate “logics.” More importantly, the
intermeshing of constraints, options, decisions, norms, and “rationalities”
is such that no useful research model can isolate “factors” according to the
categories of economic, political, and social. . . . We are arguing that
there is a single “set of rules” or a single “set of constraints” within which
these various structures operate. (p. 134)
One of Andre Gunder Frank’s points of disagreement with Wallerstein
came to be—in addition to privileging Europe (as Eurocentrism)—privileging
human-to-human structures (as “humanocentrism”) to the exclusion of nonhuman/ecological structures which also influence those same human structures
in a dynamic fashion. End of Excerpt
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Working (& Communicating) in Teams:
Are you a “Thinker” or a “Doer?”
Part of being an effective manager involves an element of introspection. Know thyself.
Do you tend to be more of a “Thought Leader” or a “Do Leader?” One is not better than
the other. Each requires an element of the other (thought versus action), in order to
bring about success. Balance is the key. Thought without action soon rings hallow or
pointless. Action without thought can prove to be costly—even outright dangerous.
Ideally, organizations need diverse teams of people working on projects. In that
diversity, hopefully, there will be a balance of “thinkers” and “doers.” Each group, in its
own way, can serve as a kind of check-and-balance, with regard to the behavior of the
other. Thinkers should not let the doers run away with things just because “We have to
get something done!” By the same token, doers must remind the thinkers that,
eventually, they must get something done.
Where do you see yourself in the scheme of things, between thinkers and doers?
Consider how this may (or may not) be reflected in your writing, speaking, and learning
style. How does it reflect how you interact with colleagues? If you tend toward the
“thinker” or “Thought Leader” side, for example, you might want to consider aligning with
some “doers” or “Do Leaders,” to assist you in implementing your great ideas. If you
tend toward the “doer” or “Do Leader” side, you might want to include people you know
to have solid thinking, and who can sometimes ask tough questions of the group—
before things go too far in the wrong direction.
As you refine and complete your group papers in this class, consider your own personal
style. Again, no one way is necessarily better than the other. It’s really an issue of what
seems most appropriate (what seems to be the “best fit”) for a given assignment, task,
or project.2
Look at the graphic image on the next page; then ask yourself where you believe
you fit in, among the characteristics described there.
There are numerous, formal ways of objectively assessing your own personal style. One of these ways is the
Myers–Briggs Type Indicator, or MBTI. It is designed to measure psychological preferences. It does this by
assessing how people perceive themselves, their environment, arrive at individual decisions, and under what
conditions they can work and perform best in groups.
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Develop Your Unique Communication Style:
Play to your strengths, but Be Aware of Your Weaknesses
Not all sound thinkers are good writers; and not all good writers are eloquent speakers.
Consider where you fit in, among these three domains of communication. What are
your strengths? Where could you improve? Know thyself.
Ancient Rome: Caesar Augustus
Below: a depiction of Caesar Augustus (reigned 27 BC to 14 AD) speaking before the
Roman Senate. As the “chief executive” of the Roman Empire, his eloquent words
could move armies, set domestic social welfare policy, as well as hopefully “appease
the gods.” Most of important of all, he had to appease the Roman masses who had the
power to determine if he either remained in power as Emperor, or met an early death.
He would do this through a combination of thought, word, and deed.
Image Source: HBO Rome.
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Ancient Rome: Caesar Claudius
Below: a depiction of Caesar Claudius (reigned 41 to 54 AD), at his desk, writing his
memoir. He had been a precocious youth, with two distinct physical handicaps.
Despite his having both a stutter and a limp (and his family initially thinking his
congenital condition was some form of mental retardation), Claudius went on to become
a brilliant and effective emperor of Rome.
Although he sometimes struggled with his own speech (particularly when under stress),
he was an excellent writer and strategic thinker. He was also known to be a first rate
historian. Moreover, he used his vast knowledge of Roman politics and the imperial
palace to surround himself with a highly competent staff—people capable of
implementing his many brilliant ideas.
Image source: The BBC’s “Masterpiece Theater” series, I, Claudius.
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Blaine D. Pope, Ph.D.
Professor, BUS 497 – A
(Student Name Here)
Student, BUS 497 – A
SUBJECT: The Impact of Cancelling the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
and The California Agriculture Industry
21 July 2018
The purpose of this memorandum is to present business strategies to help improve the North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and prevent the cancellation of the agreement. These
strategies will focus on the California agriculture industry in relation to the NAFTA agreement,
and try to balance the pros and the cons. The strategies will also give recommendation to help
solve the disagreement that the government of the three countries have had for the past months.
Agriculture trade plays a central role in NAFTA. The agricultural industry is important in all
three countries concerning the agreement: The United States, Mexico, and Canada. The Trump
administration wants to lower the trade deficit between Mexico and the United States (Amadeo,
2018). According to statistics, the United States imports more products from Mexico and Canada
in comparison to its exports to the two countries (Appendix A). Also, The United States exports
more services in comparison to the services imported from Mexico and Canada (Appendix B).
Even though services exported are higher than services imported, after the numbers are
compared in the different industries, there is a trade deficit.
The Agreement
The government leaders of the three countries are scheduled to negotiate in the near future and
make changes in the NAFTA agreement due to changes in the different industries. The Trump
Administration has threatened to withdraw from the NAFTA agreement and implement higher
tariffs on imports from Mexico and Canada to reduce the trade deficit. The agricultural trade
barriers that were eliminated with the NAFTA agreement may be imposed again. The food and
agricultural groups of the United States are concerned because it will affect the agricultural
industry. Thousands of agricultural jobs depend on cross-border agreements. Farmers can
potentially lose their jobs if the NAFTA leaders decide to undo the agreement.
Food and Agriculture Groups
According to Politico, a web magazine, Agriculture Organizations presented a signed letter to
Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross. Based on their numbers, the food and agriculture groups see
the NAFTA agreement as a good agreement for their industry (Nestle, 2017).
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Poultry: In 2016, U.S. poultry exports were 7.95 billion pounds, over 16 percent of total
production. Canada was the second-largest market for the chicken industry and in the top
five for turkey. Almost 70 percent of U.S. exports of turkey go to Mexico.

High-fructose corn syrup: U.S. exports to Mexico would decrease by $500 million per

Fruits and veggies: Canada and Mexico account for 18 percent of U.S. fresh fruit exports
and 60 percent of U.S. fresh vegetable exports. Since 1993, fruit and vegetable exports
from the U.S. to Mexico and Canada have more than tripled, totaling $7.2 billion.

Beef: In 2016, U.S. beef exports to Mexico and Canada exceeded $1.7 billion and
accounted for 27 percent of total U.S. beef exports.

Dairy: Over $1 billion a year in U.S. dairy products are shipped to Mexico.
California’s number one export destination is Canada. California accounts for more than a
million jobs that depends on the NAFTA agreement with Canada. Canada …
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