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below is the guidline for this assignment!. please go through it carefully. the requiremnt of this assignment is find 20 sources and each of the sources need to write 150 words. therefore, make sure you fully understand below guideline. here are some sources that i found: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/08/movies/crazy-ri…https://www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/movie…https://socialism.com/fs-article/merle-woo-vs-univ…http://www.feministezine.com/feminist/activist/Bio…Patriarchy & Capitalist Exploitation – Feminism for the 99, Arruzza, Bhattacharya, and Frasermy topic for this paper is Underrepresentation of Asian American women in Hollywood. there are a lot of issues make asian american being underrepresent in Hollywood. hence, make sure that all the sources must focus on this issue. when you find those sources, please think about
What is the main argument of the essay and what argument would you
advance against the argument?

What kind of audience does the essay assume? Why does it matter and for
which advocates?

How would you describe the quality of writing in this essay?

Deconstruct the bibliographic sources of the first three pages. No need to
write a bibliography, but take note of sources: quotations, essays, dictionaries, literature. Then discuss how the sources relate to the style and
reasoning manifest in the essay.
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Advocacy Writing – Communication 3409
Annotated Bibliography Assignment (100 points)
Overview
An annotated bibliography is an organizing tool that consolidates your research into one
document. An effective annotated bibliography is used to compile sources into one location for
quick access to your research as you go on to draft your paper.
General guidelines to follow when completing this assignment are:
• Adherence to Chicago format (See “Annotated Bibliography Basics”)
• Organize sources in order of sub-topics, then alphabetical order according to author
• 20 mechanically correct annotations of 150 words
• Various sources (encyclopedia, documentary, newspaper, book, article, website, report etc.),
mostly focused on narrowed issues or questions of inquiry
• Readiness to draft: internal quotes and page citations in annotation, selected for main idea
Example
Battle, Ken. “Child Poverty: The Evolution and Impact of Child Benefits.” In A Question of
Commitment: Children’s Rights in Canada, edited by Katherine Covell and Howe, R. Brian,
21-44. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2007.
Ken Battle draws on a close study of government documents, as well as his own research as an
extensively-published policy analyst, to explain Canadian child benefit programs. He outlines some
fundamental assumptions supporting the belief that all society members should contribute to the
upbringing of children. His comparison of child poverty rates in a number of countries is a useful
wake-up to anyone assuming Canadian society is doing a good job of protecting children. Battle pays
particular attention to the National Child Benefit (NCB), arguing that it did “not deserve to be
criticized by politicians and journalists”. He outlines the NCB’s development, costs, and benefits, and
laments that the Conservative government scaled it back in favour of the inferior Universal Child Care
Benefit (UCCB). However, he relies too heavily on his own work; he is the sole or primary author of
almost half the sources in his bibliography. He could make this work stronger by drawing from others’
perspectives and analyses. However, Battle does offer a valuable source for this essay, because the
chapter provides a concise overview of government-funded assistance currently available to parents.
This offers context for analyzing the scope and financial reality of child poverty in Canada.
For an extensive example, see the annotated model included in Blackboard. For now
note the specific guidelines:
1. That citing includes a hanging indent, single-spacing the reference, double-spacing the paragraph,
justifying the format, and indenting the first line of your paragraph.
2. That annotating includes one to three sentences of summary. You are encouraged to quote key
phrases from the source. Avoid quoting whole sentences. In three to five sentences, explain the
source’s relevance or importance to your main idea.
1
Advocacy Writing – Communication 3409
Annotated Bibliography Model (100 points)
First, Last Name
Comm 3409
Date
Annotated Bibliography
Revised Research Problem: I am assessing the rhetoric in defense of minimum wage hikes
because I want to increase my readers’ awareness of grounded research.
Question: Would raising the minimum wage be a good thing?
I. Reason One: Yes, raising the minimum wage breaks the cycle of poverty.
Krisberg, Kim. “Raising Minimum Wage Good for Public Health, Not Just Wallets: Advocates
Call for Federal Increase.” The Nation’s Health. March 01, 2015. Accessed November 21,
2018. http://thenationshealth.aphapublications.org/content/45/2/1.1.
In this article an advocate and researcher cites the raise in minimum wage voted into legislation in
Minnesota as an example for the potential health benefits. This is a good resource to use for the
question of human rights because it explains how income is correlated to health. Livabe income
also relates to health through evidence of safe living conditions, nutritious foods, and good
education. They also explain how using the research done on health benefits and income was
useful in educating policymakers and voters to push for the legislation. This argument was useful
in the past in advocating for the lower class and it can be helpful in framing the issue.
MacEwan, Arthur. “Viewpoint: Why Massachusetts Should Raise the Minimum Wage.”
Bizjournals.com. April 12, 2018. Accessed November 20, 2018.
https://www.bizjournals.com/boston/news/2018/04/12/viewpoint-why-massachusettsshould-raise-the.html.
This is an article from the Boston Business Journal outlining the positive reasons to raise the
minimum wage from $11-$15 with a $1 increase per year. It is an op-ed, but it is informationheavy. The author uses the arguments of workers who are paid better are more productive, and
moral arguments of families living healthier lives. They debunk the claims that minimum wage
jobs are for teenagers with the statistic that 91% are 20 and older. It also mentions that over half
or women work full time. This is an issue of class, but also compounds its effect when people
experience intersectional marginalization, such as their gender, immigration status, ethnicity, and
race. They also refute the claim of prices of goods going up by reporting that McDonalds would
only have to raise their prices by 1.3% each year to completely cover the increased wages.
Advocacy Writing – Communication 3409
Annotated Bibliography Model (100 points)
II. Reason Two: Yes, raising the minimum wage benefits the economy.
Belman, Dale, and Paul J. Wolfson. What Does the Minimum Wage Do? Kalamazoo, MI: W.E.
Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014.
This book looks at the conflicting economic research on raising the minimum wage and tries to
make sense of it. They analyze the variables based on the influences, how long the effect takes to
be noticed, and the size and desirability of the effect. They also investigate what workers are most
likely to be affected by changes to the minimum wage. This will help provide some background
and economic evidence that can be used from an advocacy standpoint. This book is for
economists, but I think there is some useful data in it.
Cooper, David. “The Impact of Raising the Federal Minimum Wage to $12 by 2020 on Workers,
Businesses, and the Economy.” Speech, April 27, 2016. Economic Policy Institute.
This is a speech transcript of testimony given to the US House Committee on Education and the
Workforce in favor of raising the federal minimum wage to $12 by 2020. The speaker is a Senior
Economic Analyst at the Economic Policy Institute, a nonpartisan, nonprofit research
organization that focuses on improving the economic conditions of low- and middle-income
workers and their families. This person is an advocate and reputable source of research. Their
points are useful for an economic argument. They report that the current federal minimum wage is
$7.25, and in the 60’s, the minimum was $10 (after you account for inflation in 2016). They offer
useful statistics about how raising the minimum wage would lessen economic inequality and
decrease government spending on welfare programs. The most important evidence offered is that
there is no proof of negative consequences when the minimum wage was raised in recent years.
IIb. Reason Two: Even a bold wage hike would help workers and negligably hurt he
economy.
Cooper, David, and Lawrence Mishel. “Bold Increases in the Minimum Wage Should Be
Evaluated for the Benefits of Raising Low-wage Workers’ Total Earnings: Critics Who
Cite Claims of Job Loss Are Using a Distorted Frame.” Economic Policy Institute. April
18, 2018. Accessed November 20, 2018. https://www.epi.org/publication/bold-increasesin-the-minimum-wage-should-be-evaluated-for-the-benefits-of-raising-low-wageworkers-total-earnings-critics-who-cite-claims-of-job-loss-are-using-a-distorted-frame/.
This journal was published by the Economic Policy Institute which is a good source because they
are nonpartisan and advocate for low income workers by researching policies that can positively
affect them. This text advocates for a raise to $15/hour by 2024, and addresses the biggest
concern over this raise: unemployment. They offer statistical evidence that there has been an
Advocacy Writing – Communication 3409
Annotated Bibliography Model (100 points)
insignificant increase in unemployment in the past in places where minimum wages were raised.
They also debunk that myth by saying that, rather than employees, hours may be cut. But it will
be spread evenly among employees and will equal higher earnings for everyone from before the
increase. Their research justifies that a bold hike in the minimum wage by 2024 will have a
positive impact on the lives of workers, and unnoticeable impact on the economy. The EPI offers
useful data and solutions that can be useful for advocates.
III.
Reason Three: Yes, because fears of raising mimum wage levels are historically
influenced but not rationally informed.
Ream, Lester F. Compulsory Minimum Wage Scale: Resolved, That the Policy of Fixing Minimum
Wage, Scales by State… Board Is Desirable. S.l.: Forgotten Books, 2018.
This book is the work of an advocate compiling speeches for and against a liveable minimum
wage. These arguments were conceived before 1923, so they both work to give context to the
historical debate of raising the minimum wage, and are also less relevant today than texts that
were written in the last 50 years. The purpose is to advocate for state boards that would determine
the lowest possible living wage per area. It also includes opinions of those on the opposition, so it
has useful insight from people who critiqued this policy idea. The argument for a liveable wage
includes strong emotional appeals about how people living in poverty can not have a decent life
and can’t provide a the necessary living conditions and good health for their family and children.
National Employment Law Project, and Cry Wolf Project. “Consider the Source: 100 Years of
Broken-Record Opposition to the Minimum Wage.” March 2013. Accessed November 20,
2018. Retrieved from https://nelp.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Consider-The-SourceMinimum-Wage.pdf.
This report from the National Employment Law Project analyzes the most common fears and
justifications of the opposition against raising the minimum wage. The researchers found that the
same reasons have been used for the past 50 years. This helps answer questions of why do people
in power want to keep the minimum wage so low? The politicians sound like broken records, and
fearmonger over destroying the economy, socialism, making people lazy, or hurting the lower
class. These claims have been debunked, but they have worked in the past and they are still used
today. The article suggests that self-interest could be at play. Corporate interests and industry
advocates are against raising the minimum wage because it would cost them a little bit more
money, and those people control politicians with their huge amount of money.
Pollin, Robert. A Measure of Fairness: The Economics of Living Wages and Minimum Wages in
the United States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.
Advocacy Writing – Communication 3409
Annotated Bibliography Model (100 points)
This book was written and compiled by an activist for a living minimum wage in the US. They
have been advocating for legislative changes for several decades and can offer insight on the
history of how the fight to raise the minimum has played out in the recent past. They have seen
the movement make drastic changes in policy since the 1990s when there were no municipal laws
regarding minimum wage to 2008, when there are 140 cities and towns with a minimum over the
federal level. This text explains why the movement has been successful and what advocates can
do to advance the fight for fair wages. The book also defines a living wage and a minimum wage
in realistic terms. There is useful information on the economic and moral arguments for advocacy.
They also address the opposition.
Waltman, Jerold L. The Politics of the Minimum Wage. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 2000.
This book was written in the 80s by a researcher of law, tax policy, and minimum wage. It has
some interesting ideas on how to frame the issue from an advocate’s perspective. The author sees
it as a political issue that can be changed through altering public and political perceptions. They
believe it is defined by symbolic politics more so than economic data. They analyze the
contradictions in previous research and don’t see it as an economic issue as much as an issue of
public ethics. It is polarizing because one side see it as society’s commitment to the poor, and the
other side sees it as a disgrace to market principles. The author looks at widespread public support
for a minimum wage and sees it as evidence for civic consciousness and humanitarianism. They
offer an interesting advocacy perspective that suggests framing the issue as the need for a
communal value of work. Economic inequality is detrimental to a functioning democracy because
it reduces civic engagement, and a sense of working towards bettering community and society.
Wolla, Scott A. “Would Increasing the Minimum Wage Reduce Poverty?” Economic Research Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. March 2014. Accessed November 20, 2018.
https://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/page1-econ/2014/03/01/would-increasing-theminimum-wage-reduce-poverty/.
This article is from the Federal Reserve Bank or St. Louis- Economic Research in opposition to a
raise in the minimum wage. They don’t cite evidence of negative affects from rasiing the
minimum in the past, but they cite a report that estimates that a raise would cause unemployment.
This is a good case study illustrating what Waltman argues, that those against minimum wage
raises are rarely rationally informed. They offer up a point at the end saying that raising the
minimum wage might not decrease poverty, because minimum wage workers are not the same
thing as the working poor. However the author suggests cutting income taxes on the lower class
rather than raising the minimum wage. This is an interesting point to look into and see if this will
have the same effect.
Advocacy Writing – Communication 3409
Annotated Bibliography Assignment (100 points)
Rubric
Annotated Bibliography
CATEGORY
A
B
C
D
F
Quantity of
Sources
Document
cites the
number of
sources
outlined in
the
assignment.
Document is
one source
under the
required
number of
sources.
Document is
two sources
under the
required
number of
sources.
Document is
three sources
under the
required
number of
sources.
Document is
four or more
sources under
the number of
required
sources.
All sources
cited can be
considered
reliable
and/or
trustworthy.
Most
sources
cited can be
considered
reliable
and/or
trustworthy.
Some sources
can be
considered
reliable and/or
trustworthy.
Few sources
cited can be
considered
reliable
and/or
trustworthy.
Little or no
reliable
and/or
trustworthy
sources cited.
Excellent
variety or
breadth
sources; cites
more than
four types of
sources.
Good
variety or
breadth of
sources;
cites four
types of
sources.
Adequate
variety or
breadth of
sources; cites
three types of
sources.
Poor variety
or beadth of
sources; cites
two types of
sources.
No variety or
breadth of
sources; cites
only one type
of source.
All
annotations
are
thoughtful,
complete, and
well written.
Most
annotations
are
thoughtful,
complete,
and well
written.
Some
annotations
are well
written but
some are
lacking in
completeness,
thought, and
/or writing
quality.
Most
annotations
are lacking in
completeness,
thought,
and/or
writing
quality.
All
annotations
are lacking in
completeness,
thought,
and/or
writing
quality.
Citations are
formatted
correctly in
the document.
There are a
few
formatting
errors in the
document’s
citations.
There are some
formatting
errors in the
document’s
citations.
There are
many and/or
frequent
formatting
errors in the
document’s
citations.
There is little
or no
adherence to
format in the
document.
30 pts.
Quality of
Sources
30 pts.
Variety and
Spread of
Sources
30 pts.
Writing
fluency of
annotations
30 pts.
Chicago and
Documentation
30 pts.
Rubrics are subject to minor revisions. Students will be notified of changes.
Advocacy Writing – Communication 3409
Annotated Bibliography Assignment (100 points)
Execution
1. Plan and Schedule Research Time
In order to complete this assignment, you will need to plan and schedule your research before you start
reading. Plan your timetable in a way that allows you to read on the topic. Principles:





My research is ritualized time for independent learning.
I have to skim and annotate twenty sources in T-1 weeks, blocking a week for revisions.
I will commit to breadth over depth in my process.
I will aggregate an initial master list of about five sources.
I will block my time according to small goals.
2. Strategize Research About Reasons Supporting your Hypothesis
For scholars writing books, annotated bibliographies are organized around primary (witness or
experience-based testimonials), secondary (theory or knowledge written with the benefit of hindsight),
and tertiary (inquiries similar to yours) sources. So if letters from Martin Luther King Jr. are primary, and
a book on King’s writings secondary, then an encyclopedia on the civil rights movement would be tertiary
if you’re studying the impact that King had on advocacy.
However the above can be overwhelming because it’s not yet shaped around each of your main ideas.
Instead of researching your topic in total, strategize your research around the reasons (see step five in
topic paper assignment) in support of the working hypothesis. This helps you to prioritize the amount,
quality and breadth of your research.
3. Conceive Research as a Movement from General to Specific
Begin with the general layout of your topic based on what you think you and your reader should know on
the nature of your topic. Revise your topic management grid accordingly (see step two of topic paper
assignment). First, refer to two-three general sources, usually reference guides, documentaries, and the
first chapters of books to contextualize your topic. Then, from the bibliographies there, take note of twothree secondary sources like more specific books, journals; recent overview articles from the New York
Times or Washington Post. Third, move on to scholarly inquiries that are arguably similar to your own,
and individual testimonials through online posts, archival sources and interviews. This process will revise
the reasons in support of your working hypothesis.
4. Evaluate your Sources
All sources cited should be considered reliable and/or trustworthy but credibility also comes from your
capacity to cover the spread on a specific inquiry. You can’t talk about minimum wage advocacy if you
don’t, for example, cover the human rights angle as well as its economic effects. Or if you’re talking
about the rhetoric of minimum wage, you have to cover the keynote debates on the issue. At the same
time, your contribution to a community of writers has to do with bringing the topic to new light; meaning,
what doesn’t the current spread cover?
5. Revise your citations
See Chapter 14 of the Chicago Manual of Style available to you in full online through Northeastern’s
library system. Also see the Quick Chicago Guide included in Blackboard.
1

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