Attached is the format, guidelines, and rubrics needed to complete the task. There is no page/word limit.This assignment gives
you the opportunity to explain and justify a system
proposal to gain approval to proceed with the project. This assignment addresses all of the course
outcomes to enable you to:·plan,
build, and maintain systems that meet organizational strategic goals by demonstrating
the use of enterprise architecture and applying enterprise governance
principles and practices need assessment·apply
a systematic approach to translate requirements into an executable systems
communicate with stakeholders to determine, manage, and document business
requirements throughout the SDLCperform modeling toassist with analysis and decision making
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Lesson No: 1
Author : Dr. Jawahar
Lesson Name : Overview of System Analysis & Design
Prof. Dharminder Kumar
1.2 Over View of System Analysis and Design
1.3 Business System Concepts
1.4 Characteristics of a System
1.5 Elements of a System
1.6 Types of Systems
1.7 Systems Models
1.8 Categories of Information
Defining a system
The role of computer in information systems
What are the characteristic and element of information system
What are the various types of information system and models
What are the different types of specialised information system
In business, System Analysis and Design refers to the process of examining a
business situation with the intent of improving it through better procedures and methods.
System analysis and design relates to shaping organizations, improving performance and
achieving objectives for profitability and growth. The emphasis is on systems in action,
the relationships among subsystems and their contribution to meeting a common goal.
Looking at a system and determining how adequately it functions, the changes to be
made and the quality of the output are parts of system analysis.
Organizations are complex systems that consist of interrelated and interlocking
subsystems. Changes in one part of the system have both anticipated and unanticipated
consequences in other parts of the system. The systems approval is a way of thinking
about the analysis and design of computer based applications. It provides a framework for
visualizing the organizational and environmental factors that operate on a system. When
a computer is introduced into an organization, various functions’ and dysfunction’s
operate on the user as well as on the organization. Among the positive consequences are
improved performance and a feeling of achievement with quality information. Among the
unanticipated consequences might be a possible threat to employees job, a decreased
morale of personnel due to back of involvement and a feeling of intimidation by users
due to computer illiteracy. The analyst’s role is to remove such fears and make the
system a success.
System analysis and design focus on systems, processes and technology.
1.2 Over View of System Analysis and Design
Systems development can generally be thought of as having two major
components: Systems analysis and Systems design. System design is the process of
planning a new business system or one to replace or complement an existing system.
But before this planning can be done, we must thoroughly understand the old system
and determine how computers can best be used to make its operation more effective.
System analysis, then, is the process of gathering and interpreting facts, diagnosing
problems, and using the information to recommend improvements to the system.
This is the job of the systems analyst.
Consider, for example, the stockroom operation of a clothing store. To better
control its inventory and gain access to more up – to – date information about stock levels
and reordering, the store asks a system analyst, to “computerize” its stockroom
operations. Before one can design a system to capture data, update files, and produce
reports, one needs to know more about the store operations: what forms are being used to
store information manually, such as requisitions, purchase orders, and invoices and what
reports are being produced and how they are being used.
To proceed, you then seek out information about lists of reorder notices,
outstanding purchase orders, records of stock on hand, and other reports. You also need
to find out where this information originates, whether in the purchasing department,
stockroom, or accounting department. In other words, you must understand how the
existing system works and, more specifically, what the flow of information through the
system looks like.
You also must know why the store wants to change its current operations. Does
the business have problems tracking orders, merchandise, or money? Does it seem to fall
behind in handling inventory records? Does it need a more efficient system before it can
Only after you have collected these facts can you being to determine how and
where a computer information system can benefit all the users of the system. This
accumulation of information, called a systems study, must precede all other analysis
Systems analysts do more than solve current problems. They are frequently called
upon to help handle the planned expansion of a business. In the case of the clothing store,
the systems study is future oriented, since no system currently exists. Analysts assess as
carefully as possible what the future needs of the business will be and what changes
should be considered to meet these needs. In this instance and in most others, analysts
may recommend alternatives for improving the situation. Usually more than one strategy
Working with managers and employees in the organization, systems analysts
recommend which alternative to adopt, based on such concerns as the suitability of the
solution to the particular organization and setting, as well as the employee support the
solution is likely to have. Sometimes the time required to develop one alternative,
compared with others, is the most critical issue. Costs and benefits are also important
determinants. In the end, management, which will pay for and use the result, actually
decides which alternative to accept.
Once this decision is made, a plan is developed to implement the
recommendation. The plan includes all systems design features, such as new data capture
needs, file specifications, operating procedures, equipment and personnel needs. The
systems design is like the blueprint for a building: it specifies all the features that are to
be in the finished product.
Designs for the stockroom will provide ways to capture data about orders and
sales to customers and specify the way the data will be stored, whether on paper forms or
on a computer – readable medium, such as magnetic tape or disk. The designs will also
designate work to be performed by people and by computers. Designs vary in their
division of human and computer tasks.
The stockroom personnel will also need information about the business. Each
design describes output to be produced by the system, such as inventory reports, sales
analyses, purchasing summaries, and invoices. The systems analysts will actually decide
which outputs to use, as well as how to produce them.
Analysis specifies what the system should do. Design states how to accomplish
the objective. Notice that each of the processes mentioned involves people. Managers and
employees have good ideas about what works and what does not, about what flows
smoothly and what causes problems, about where change is needed and where it is not,
and especially about where change will be accepted and where it will not. Despite
technology, people are still the keys that make the organizations work. Thus,
communicating and dealing with people are very important parts of the systems analyst’s
1.3 Business System Concepts
The word system is widely used. It has become fashionable to attach the word
system to add a contemporary flair when referring to things or processes. People speak of
exercise system, investment system, delivery system, information system, education
system, computer system etc. System may be referred to any set of components, which
function in interrelated manner for a common cause or objective.
The term system is derived form the Greek word systema, which means an
organized relationship among functioning units or components. A system exists because
it is designed to achieve one or more objectives. We come into daily contact with the
transportation system, the telephone system, the accounting system, the production
system, and, for over two decades, the computer system. Similarly, we talk of the
business system and of the organization as a system consisting of interrelated
departments (subsystems) such as production, sales, personnel, and an information
system. None of these subsystems is of much use as a single, independent unit. When
they are properly coordinated, however, the firm can function effectively and profitably.
There are more than a hundred definitions of the word system, but most seem to
have a common thread that suggests that a system is an orderly grouping of
interdependent components linked together according to a plan to achieve a specific
objective. The word component may refer to physical parts (engines, wings of aircraft,
car), managerial steps (planning, organizing and controlling), or a system in a multi level
structure. The component may be simple or complex, basic or advanced. They may be
single computer with a keyboard, memory, and printer or a series of intelligent terminals
linked to a mainframe. In either case, each component is part of the total system and has
to do its share of work for the system to achieve the intended goal. This orientation
requires an orderly grouping of the components for the design of a successful system.
The study of systems concepts, then, has three basic implications:
A system must be designed to achieve a predetermined objective.
Interrelationships and interdependence must exist among the components.
The objectives of the organization as a whole have a higher priority than the
objectives of its subsystems. For example, computerizing personnel
applications must conform to the organization’s policy on privacy,
confidentiality and security, as will as making selected data (e.g. payroll)
available to the accounting division on request.
1.4 Characteristics of a System
Our definition of a system suggests some characteristics that are present in all
systems: organization (order), interaction, interdependence, integration and a central
Organization implies structure and order. It is the arrangement of components that
helps to achieve objectives. In the design of a business system, for example, the
hierarchical relationships starting with the president on top and leading downward to the
blue – collar workers represents the organization structure. Such an arrangement portrays
a system – subsystem relationship, defines the authority structure, specifies the formal
flow of communication and formalizes the chain of command. Like – wise, a computer
system is designed around an input device, a central processing unit, an output device and
one or more storage units. When linked together they work as a whole system for
Interaction refers to the manner in which each component functions with other
components of the system. In an organization, for example, purchasing must interact with
production, advertising with sales and payroll with personnel. In a computer system, the
central processing unit must interact with the input device to solve a problem. In turn, the
main memory holds programs and data that the arithmetic unit uses for computation. The
interrelationship between these components enables the computer to perform.
Interdependence means that parts of the organization or computer system depend
on one another. They are coordinated and linked together according to a plan. One
subsystem depends on the input of another subsystem for proper functioning: that is, the
output of one subsystem is the required input for another subsystem. This
interdependence is crucial in systems work.
An integrated information system is designed to serve the needs of authorized
users (department heads, managers, etc.) for quick access and retrieval via remote
terminals. The interdependence between the personnel subsystem and the organization’s
users is obvious.
In summary, no subsystem can function in isolation because it is dependent on the
data (inputs) it receives from other subsystems to perform its required tasks.
Interdependence is further illustrated by the activities and support of systems analysts,
programmers, and the operations staff in a computer centre. A decision to computerize an
application is initiated by the user, analyzed and designed by the analyst, programmed
and tested by the programmer, and run by the computer operator. None of these persons
can perform property without the required input from others in the computer center
Organization Structure – An Example
Lines of Authority
Integration refers to the holism of systems. Synthesis follows analysis to achieve
the central objective of the organization. Integration is concerned with how a system is
tied together. It is more than sharing a physical part or location. It means that parts of the
system work together within the system even though each part performs a unique
function. Successful integration will typically produce a synergistic effect and greater
total impact than if each component works separately.
1.4.5 Central objective
The last characteristic of a system is its central objective. Objectives may be real
or stated. Although a stated objective may be the real objective, it is not uncommon for
an organization to state one objective and operate to achieve another. The important point
is that users must know the central objective of a computer application early in the
analysis for a successful design and conversion. Political as well as organizational
considerations often cloud the real objective. This means that the analyst must work
around such obstacles to identify the real objective of the proposed change.
1.5 Elements of a System
In most cases, systems analysts operate in a dynamic environment where change
is a way of life. The environment may be a business firm, a business application, or a
computer system. To reconstruct a system, the following key elements must be
Outputs and inputs.
Boundaries and interface.
1.5.1 Outputs and Inputs
A major objective of a system is to produce an output that has value to its user.
Whatever the nature of the output (goods, services, or information), it must be in line
with the expectations of the intended user. Inputs are the elements (material, human
resources, and information) that enter the system for processing. Output is the outcome of
processing. A system feeds on input to produce output in much the same way that a
business brings in human, financial, and material resources to produce goods and
services. It is important to point out here that determining the output is a first step in
specifying the nature, amount, and regularity of the input needed to operate a system. For
example, in systems analysis, the first concern is to determine the user’s requirements of
a proposed computer system – that is, specification of the output that the computer is
expected to provide for meeting user requirements.
The processor is the element of a system that involves the actual transformation of
input into output. It is the operational component of a system. Processors may modify the
input totally or partially, depending on the specifications of the output. This means that as
the output specifications change so does the processing. In some cases, input is also
modified to enable the processor to handle the transformation.
The control element guides the system. It is the decision – making subsystem that
controls the pattern of activities governing input, processing, and output. In an
organizational context, management as a decision – making body controls the inflow,
handling and outflow of activities that affect the welfare of the business. In a computer
system, the operating system and accompanying software influence the behaviour of the
system. Output specifications determine what and how much input is needed to keep the
system in balance.
In systems analysis, knowing the attitudes of the individual who controls the area
for which a computer is being considered can make a difference between the success and
failure of the installation. Management support is required for securing control and
supporting the objective of the proposed change.
Control in a dynamic system is achieved by feedback. Feedback measures output
against a standard in some form of cybernetic procedure that includes communication and
control. Output information is fed back to the input and / or to management (Controller)
for deliberation. After the output is compared against performance standards, changes can
result in the input or processing and consequently, the output.
Feedback may be positive or negative, routing or informational. Positive feedback
reinforces the performance of the system. It is routine in nature. Negative feedback
generally provides the controller with information for action. In systems analysis,
feedback is important in different ways. During analysis, the user may be told that the
problems in a given application verify the initial concerns and justify the need for change.
Another form of feedback comes after the system is implemented. The user informs the
analyst about the performance of the new installation. This feedback often results in
enhancements to meet the user’s requirements.
The environment is the “suprasystem” within which an organization operates. It is
the source of external elements that impinge on the system. In fact, it often determines
how a system must function. For example, the organization’s environment, consisting of
vendors, competitors, and others, may provide constraints and, consequently, influence
the actual performance of the business.
1.5.6 Boundaries and interface
A system should be defined by its boundaries – the limits that identify its
components, processes and interrelationship when it interfaces with another system. For
example, a teller system in a commercial bank is restricted to the deposits, withdrawals
and related activities of customers checking and savings accounts. It may exclude
mortgage foreclosures, trust activities, and the like.
Each system has boundaries that determine its sphere of influence and control.
For example, in an integrated banking – wide computer system design, a customer who
has a mortgage and a checking account with the same bank may write a check through
the “teller system” to pay the premium that is later processed by the “mortgage loan
system.” Recently, system design has been successful in allowing the automatic transfer
of funds form a bank account to pay bills and other obligations to creditors, regardless of
distance or location. This means that in systems analysis, knowledge of the boundaries of
a given system is crucial in determining the nature of its interface with other systems for
1.6 Types of systems
The frame of reference within which one views a system is related to the use of
the systems approach for analysis. Systems have been classified in different ways.
Common classifications are: (1) physical or abstract, (2) open or closed, and (3) “man –
made” information systems.
1.6.1 Physical or abstract systems
Physical systems are tangible entities that may be static or dynamic in operation.
For example, the physical parts of the computer center are the officers, desks, and chairs
that facilitate operation of the computer. They can be seen and counted; they are static. In
contrast, a programmed computer is a dynamic system. Data, programs, output, and
applications change as the user’s demands or the priority of the information requested
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