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Based on the lectures, readings, class discussion, your observations and insights develop a 2000-2500-word paper with at least 8 peer reviewed references that provides a discussion of the major contributory factors that build healthy behaviors and cultures within an organization. You should cite between 3-5 factors and support them with references that provide evidence-based research in support of your position. The word count will be exclusive of references, quotes, citations and title page.I upload our book and slides. U can read them.
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ALWAYS LEARNING
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Fourteenth Edition
Essentials of
Organizational Behavior
Stephen P. Robbins
San Diego State University
Timothy A. Judge
The Ohio State University
New York, NY
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Robbins, Stephen P., author. | Judge, Tim, author.
Title: Essentials of organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, San Diego
State University, Timothy A. Judge, University of Notre Dame.
Description: Fourteen edition. | Boston : Pearson Education, [2016] |
Includes index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016022886 (print) | LCCN 2016034760 (ebook) | ISBN
9780134523859 (pbk. : alk. paper) | ISBN 9780134527314
Subjects: LCSH: Organizational behavior.
Classification: LCC HD58.7 .R6 2017 (print) | LCC HD58.7 (ebook) | DDC
658.3––dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016022886
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN 10: 0-13-452385-7
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-452385-9
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This book is dedicated to our friends and colleagues in
The Organizational Behavior Teaching Society
who, through their teaching, research and commitment
to the leading process, have significantly
improved the ability of students
to understand and apply OB concepts.
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BRIEF CONTENTS
PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
1
What Is Organizational Behavior? 1
Diversity in Organizations 17
Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 34
Emotions and Moods 47
Personality and Values 64
PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
82
Perception and Individual Decision Making
Motivation Concepts 100
Motivation: From Concepts to Applications
PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams
82
120
136
Chapter 9 Foundations of Group Behavior 136
Chapter 10 Understanding Work Teams 154
Chapter 11 Communication 170
PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics
Chapter 12 Leadership 186
Chapter 13 Power and Politics 207
Chapter 14 Conflict and Negotiation
186
226
PART 5 Leading, Understanding, and Transforming
the Organization System 245
Chapter 15 Foundations of Organization Structure 245
Chapter 16 Organizational Culture 265
Chapter 17 Organizational Change and Stress Management
285
vi
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CONTENTS
Preface
xxii
Acknowledgments
xxix
About the Authors
xxx
PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others
1
Chapter 1 WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR?
1
Chapter Warm-up 1
Management and Organizational Behavior 2
Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined 3
Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 3
Watch It—Herman Miller: Organizational Behavior 4
Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 4
Big Data 5
Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 6
Psychology 6
Social Psychology 6
Sociology 7
Anthropology 7
There Are Few Absolutes in OB 7
Challenges and Opportunities for OB 8
Continuing Globalization 8
Workforce Demographics 10
Workforce Diversity 10
Social Media 10
Employee Well-Being at Work 11
Positive Work Environment 11
Ethical Behavior 12
Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 12
Overview 12
Inputs 13
Processes 13
Outcomes 14
Summary 15
Implications for Managers 15
Personal Inventory Assessments: Multicultural Awareness Scale
16
vii
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viii
Contents
Chapter 2 DIVERSITY IN ORGANIZATIONS
17
Chapter Warm-up 17
Diversity 17
Demographic Characteristics 18
Levels of Diversity 18
Discrimination 19
Stereotype Threat 19
Discrimination in the Workplace 20
Biographical Characteristics 21
Age 21
Sex 22
Race and Ethnicity 23
Disabilities 23
Hidden Disabilities 24
Other Differentiating Characteristics 25
Religion 25
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 25
Cultural Identity 27
Watch It—Verizon: Diversity 27
Ability 27
Intellectual Abilities 27
Physical Abilities 29
Implementing Diversity Management Strategies 29
Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse
Employees 30
Diversity in Groups 31
Diversity Programs 32
Summary 32
Implications for Managers 33
Try It—Simulation: Human Resources 33
Personal Inventory Assessments: Intercultural Sensitivity
Scale 33
Chapter 3 ATTITUDES AND JOB SATISFACTION
34
Chapter Warm-up 34
Attitudes 34
Watch It—Gawker Media: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
Attitudes and Behavior 36
Job Attitudes 37
Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 37
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Contents  ix
Organizational Commitment 37
Perceived Organizational Support 37
Employee Engagement 38
Measuring Job Satisfaction 38
Approaches to Measurement 39
Measured Job Satisfaction Levels 39
What Causes Job Satisfaction? 39
Job Conditions 40
Personality 41
Pay 41
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 41
Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 42
Job Performance 42
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 42
Customer Satisfaction 42
Life Satisfaction 43
The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 43
Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) 43
Understanding the Impact 45
Summary 46
Implications for Managers 46
Try It—Simulation: Attitudes & Job Satisfaction 46
Personal Inventory Assessments: Core Self-Evaluation (CSE)
Scale 46
Chapter 4 EMOTIONS AND MOODS
47
Chapter Warm-up 47
What Are Emotions and Moods? 47
The Basic Emotions 48
Moral Emotions 49
The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect
Experiencing Moods and Emotions 50
The Function of Emotions 50
Sources of Emotions and Moods 51
Personality 52
Time of Day 52
Day of the Week 52
Weather 52
Stress 54
Sleep 54
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x
Contents
Exercise 54
Age 54
Sex 54
Emotional Labor 55
Controlling Emotional Displays 55
Emotional Dissonance and Mindfulness 56
Affective Events Theory 56
Emotional Intelligence 56
Emotion Regulation 58
Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes 58
Emotion Regulation Techniques 58
Ethics of Emotion Regulation 59
Watch It—East Haven Fire Department: Emotions and Moods
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 59
Selection 59
Decision Making 60
Creativity 60
Motivation 60
Leadership 60
Customer Service 61
Job Attitudes 61
Deviant Workplace Behaviors 61
Safety and Injury at Work 62
59
Summary 62
Implications for Managers 62
Try It—Simulation: Emotions & Moods 63
Personal Inventory Assessments: Emotional Intelligence
Assessment 63
Chapter 5 PERSONALITY AND VALUES
64
Chapter Warm-up 64
Personality 64
What Is Personality? 65
Personality Frameworks 66
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 66
The Big Five Personality Model 67
How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior at Work?
The Dark Triad 69
Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB 71
Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) 71
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Contents  xi
Self-Monitoring 72
Proactive Personality 72
Personality and Situations 72
Situation Strength Theory 73
Trait Activation Theory 74
Values 75
Watch It—Honest Tea: Ethics–Company Mission and Values 75
Terminal versus Instrumental Values 75
Generational Values 76
Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values
to the Workplace 76
Person–Job Fit 76
Person–Organization Fit 77
Other Dimensions of Fit 77
Cultural Values 78
Hofstede’s Framework 78
The GLOBE Framework 79
Comparison of Hofstede’s Framework and the Globe
Framework 79
Summary 81
Implications for Managers 81
Personal Inventory Assessments: Personality Style
Indicator 81
PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions
82
Chapter 6 PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION
MAKING 82
Chapter Warm-up 82
What Is Perception? 82
Factors That Influence Perception 83
Watch It—Orpheus Group Casting: Social Perception and
Attribution 84
Person Perception: Making Judgments about Others 84
Attribution Theory 84
Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 86
The Link between Perception and Individual Decision
Making 87
Decision Making in Organizations 87
The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 87
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xii
Contents
Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 89
Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and
Organizational Constraints 91
Individual Differences 92
Organizational Constraints 93
What about Ethics in Decision Making? 93
Three Ethical Decision Criteria 94
Choosing between Criteria 94
Behavioral Ethics 95
Lying 95
Creativity, Creative Decision Making, and Innovation in
Organizations 95
Creative Behavior 96
Causes of Creative Behavior 96
Creative Outcomes (Innovation) 98
Summary 98
Implications for Managers 98
Try It—Simulation: Perception & Individual Decision
Making 99
Personal Inventory Assessments: How Creative Are You?
Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts
99
100
Chapter Warm-up 100
Motivation 100
Watch It—Motivation (TWZ Role Play) 101
Early Theories of Motivation 101
Hierarchy of Needs Theory 101
Two-Factor Theory 102
McClelland’s Theory of Needs 102
Contemporary Theories of Motivation 104
Self-Determination Theory 104
Goal-Setting Theory 105
Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation 108
Self-Efficacy Theory 108
Reinforcement Theory 110
Equity Theory/Organizational Justice 111
Expectancy Theory 115
Job Engagement 116
Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 116
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Contents  xiii
Summary 118
Implications for Managers 118
Try It—Simulation: Motivation 118
Personal Inventory Assessments: Work Motivation Indicator 119
Chapter 8 MOTIVATION: FROM CONCEPTS TO
APPLICATIONS 120
Chapter Warm-up 120
Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics
Model (JCM) 121
Elements of the JCM 121
Efficacy of the JCM 121
Motivating Potential Score (MPS) 122
Cultural Generalizability of the JCM 123
Using Job Redesign to Motivate Employees 123
Job Rotation 123
Relational Job Design 124
Using Alternative Work Arrangements
to Motivate Employees 124
Flextime 125
Job Sharing 126
Telecommuting 127
Using Employee Involvement and Participation (EIP)
to Motivate Employees 127
Cultural EIP 128
Forms of Employee Involvement Programs 128
Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 129
What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 129
How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees through
Variable-Pay Programs 129
Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 133
Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 133
Watch It—ZAPPOS: Motivating Employees through Company
Culture 134
Summary 134
Implications for Managers 135
Try It—Simulation: Extrinsic & Intrinsic Motivation 135
Personal Inventory Assessments: Diagnosing the Need for
Team Building
135
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xiv
Contents
PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams
Chapter 9 FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOR
136
136
Chapter Warm-up 136
Groups and Group Identity 137
Social Identity 137
Ingroups and Outgroups 137
Stages of Group Development 138
Watch It—Witness.org: Managing Groups & Teams 138
Group Property 1: Roles 139
Role Perception 140
Role Expectations 140
Role Conflict 140
Group Property 2: Norms 140
Norms and Emotions 141
Norms and Conformity 141
Norms and Behavior 142
Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 142
Negative Norms and Group Outcomes 143
Norms and Culture 144
Group Property 3: Status, and Group Property 4: Size 144
Group Property 3: Status 144
Group Property 4: Size 146
Group Property 5: Cohesiveness, and Group Property
6: Diversity 146
Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 147
Group Property 6: Diversity 147
Group Decision Making 149
Groups versus the Individual 149
Groupthink 150
Groupshift or Group Polarization 151
Group Decision-Making Techniques 151
Summary 152
Implications for Managers 153
Try It—Simulation: Group Behavior 153
Personal Inventory Assessments: Communicating
Supportively 153
Chapter 10 UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAMS
Chapter Warm-up 154
Why Have Teams Become so Popular?
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154
154
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Contents  xv
Differences between Groups and Teams 155
Types of Teams 156
Problem-Solving Teams 156
Self-Managed Work Teams 156
Cross-Functional Teams 157
Virtual Teams 158
Multiteam Systems 158
Watch It—Teams (TWZ Role Play) 159
Creating Effective Teams 159
Team Context: What Factors Determine Whether
Teams Are Successful? 160
Team Composition 161
Team Processes 164
Turning Individuals into Team Players 166
Selecting: Hiring Team Players 167
Training: Creating Team Players 167
Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a
Good Team Player 167
Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer 168
Summary 168
Implications for Managers 168
Try It—Simulation: Teams 169
Personal Inventory Assessments: Team Development
Behaviors 169
Chapter 11 COMMUNICATION
170
Chapter Warm-up 170
Communication 171
Functions of Communication 171
The Communication Process 172
Direction of Communication 172
Downward Communication 173
Upward Communication 173
Lateral Communication 173
Formal Small-Group Networks 174
The Grapevine 174
Modes of Communication 175
Oral Communication 175
Written Communication 176
Nonverbal Communication 176
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xvi
Contents
Choice of Communication Channel 176
Channel Richness 176
Choosing Communication Methods 177
Information Security 178
Persuasive Communication 178
Automatic and Controlled Processing 178
Tailoring the Message 179
Barriers to Effective Communication 180
Filtering 180
Selective Perception 180
Information Overload 180
Emotions 181
Language 181
Silence 181
Communication Apprehension 181
Lying 182
Cultural Factors 182
Cultural Barriers 182
Cultural Context 183
A Cultural Guide 183
Watch It—Communication (TWZ Role Play) 184
Summary 184
Implications for Managers 185
Try It—Simulation: Communication 185
Personal Inventory Assessments: Communication Styles
PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics
Chapter 12 LEADERSHIP
186
186
Chapter Warm-up 186
Watch It—Leadership (TWZ Role Play) 186
Trait Theories of Leadership 187
Personality Traits and Leadership 187
Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Leadership
Behavioral Theories 188
Initiating Structure 188
Consideration 189
Cultural Differences 189
Contingency Theories 189
The Fiedler Model 189
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185
188
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Contents  xvii
Situational Leadership Theory 191
Path–Goal Theory 191
Leader–Participation Model 192
Contemporary Theories of Leadership 192
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 192
Charismatic Leadership 194
Transactional and Transformational Leadership
196
Responsible Leadership 199
Authentic Leadership 199
Ethical Leadership 200
Servant Leadership 200
Positive Leadership 201
Trust 201
Mentoring 203
Challenges to Our Understanding of Leadership
Leadership as an Attribution 203
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