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Analysis and Define the following in relation to the article


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Define the following in relation to the article:
Berlin Conference
The Monroe Doctrine
Yellow Peril
‘SEMPERnovi quid ex Africa,’ cried
the Roman proconsul; and he voiced
the verdict of forty centuries. Yet there
are those who woulcl write world-history and leave out this most marvelous
of continents. Particularly to-day most
men assume that Africa lies far afield
from the centres of our burning social
problems, and especially from our present problem of World War.
Yet in a very real sense Africa is a
prime cause of this terrible overturning of civilization which wlj have lived
to see; and these words seek to show
how in the Dark Continent are hidden
the roots, not simply of war to-day but
of the menace of wars to-morrow.
Always Africa is giving us something
new or some metempsychosis of a
world-old thing. On its black bosom
arose one of the earliest, if not the earliest, of self-protecting civilizations, and
grew so mightily that it still furnishes
superlatives to thinking and spealring
men. Out of its darker ancl more remote forest fastnesses, came, if we may
credit many recent scientists, the first
welding of iron, and we know that agriculture and trade flourished there when
Europe was a wilderness.
Nearly every human empire that has
arisen in the world, material and spiritual, has found some of its greatest crises on this continent of Africa, from
Greece to Great Britain. As Mommsen
says, ‘It was through Africa that Christianity became the religion of the world.’
In Africa the last flood of Germanic in-
vasions spent itself within hearing of
the last gasp of Byzantium, and it was
a;;~in through Africa that Islam came
to play its great r61e of conclueror and
With the Renaissance and the widened world of modern thought, Africa
came no less suddenly with her new
old gift. Shakespeare’s Ancient Pistol
cries, ‘ A foutre for thc world, and worldlings base!
I speak of Afrioz, and golden joys.’
He echoes a legend of gold from the
days of Punt and Ophir to those of
Ghana, the Gold Coast, and the Rand.
This thought had sent the world’s
greed scurrying down the hot, mysterious coasts of Africa to the Good Hope
of gain, until for the first time a real
world-commerce was born, albeit it
started as a commerce mainly in the
bodies and souls of men.
So much for the past; and now, today: the Berlin Conference to apportion the rising riches of Africa among
the white peoples met on the fifteenth
day of November, 1884. Eleven days
earlier, three Germans left Zanzibar
(whither they had gone secretly disguised as mechanics), and before the
Berlin Conference had finished its deliberations they had annexed to Germany an area over half as large again
as the whole German Empire in Europe. Only in its dramatic suddenness
was this undisguised robbery of the
land of seven million natives different
from the methods by which Great Britain and France got four million square
miles each, Portugal three quarters of
a million, and Italy and Spain smaller
but substantial areas.
The methods by which this continent has been stolen have been contemptible and dishonest beyond expression. Lying treaties, rivers of rum,
murder, assassination, mutilation, rape,
and torture have marked the progress
of Englishman, German, Frenchman,
and Belgianon the dark continent. The
only way in which the world has been
able to endure the horrible tale is by
deliberately stopping its ears and
changing the subject of conversation
while the deviltry went on.
It all began, singularly enough, like
the present war, with Belgium. Many
of us remember Stanley’s great solution of the puzzle of Central Africa
when he traced the mighty Congo sixteen hundred miles from Nyangwe to
the sea. Suddenly the world knew that
here lay the key t o the riches of Central
Africa. It stirred uneasily, but Leopold
of Belgium was first on his feet, and
the result was the Congo Free State
-God save the mark! But the Congo
Free State, with all its magniloquent
heralding of Peace, Christianity, and
Commerce, degenerating into murder,
mutilation and downright robbery, differed only in degree and concentration
from the tale of all Africa in this rape
of a continent already furiously mangled by the slave trade. That sinister
traffic, on which the British Empire
and the American Republic were largely built, cost black Africa no less than
100,000,000 souls, the wreckage of its
political and social life, and left the
continent in precisely that state of
helplessness which invites aggression
and exploitation. ‘Color’ became in
the world’s thought synonymous with
inferiority, ‘Negro’ lost its capitalization, and Africa was another name for
bestiality and barbarism.
Thus the world began to invest in
color prejudice. The ‘Color Line’ be-
gan to pay dividends. For indeed,while
the exploration of the valley of the
Congo was the occasion of the scramble for Africa, the cause lay deeper.
The Franco-Prussian War turned the
eyes of those who sought power and
dominion away from Europe. Already
England was in Africa, cleaning anfay
the dkbris of the slave trade and half
consciously groping toward the new
Imperialism. France, humiliated and
impoverished, looked toward a new
northern African empire sweeping from
the Atlantic to the Red Sea. More
slowly Germany began to see thedawning of a new day, and, shut out from
America by the Monroe Doctrine,
looked to Asia and Africa for colonies.
Portugal sought anew to make good
her claim to her ancient African realm;
and thus a continent where Europe
claimed but a tenth of the land in 18%,
was in twenty-five more years practically absorbed.
Why was this? What was the new
call for dominion? I t must have been
strong, for consider a moment the desperate flames of war that have shot up
in Africa in the last quarter of a century: France and England at Fashoda,
Italy a t Adua, Italy and Turkey in
Tripoli, Engla
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