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Answer the two critical thinking questions from below. Each response should be two pages, so four pages total. If it is a little longer, that is fine. Be sure to apply terms/concept(s) from the readings, and/or the slide presentations. Use at least two direct quotes with citations (ASA style) per response to support your points. You may also relate the topics to your personal lives, current events, and/or slide presentations. Write one response, then the next, then include your reference page. It is all one paper, but the discussions are separate. Put your heading (name and such) in the header of the paper – you do not need a cover page. Put page numbers at the footer of the paper. Before each response, write the Module section and number of the prompt you are answering.Be sure to reference the author you directly quoted, even if it is from the textbook or slides. You should have a page at the very end called “References”. You only need one reference page. Wikipedia and Dictionary.com are not academic sources – you do not need to use them. The only sources you need for this assignment are your class notes, slides, and/or textbook. Follow the American Sociological Association format for in-text citations and the reference page. You can do an Internet search for “ASA style guide”. You only need to use ASA style for quotes, citations, and the reference page.*** PROMPTS ***Module 1 Question 1Briefly describe your favorite character from literature, television, or film. Using your sociological imagination, explain some of the problems that character had/has from a sociological perspective. Be sure that you clearly define and identify “the sociological perspective” and “the sociological imagination.” Be careful not to give a detailed summary of the character – stick to the sociology!Module 3 Question 2Globalization is a widespread cultural phenomenon in many nations. Describe globalization, paying specific attention to how it emerged. You should also illustrate how globalization is contributing to the creation of a global culture. Finally, you should offer one argument in favor of globalization and one argument against globalization that relate specifically to how globalization affects national cultures.
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sociology
9
sociology
exploring the architecture of everyday life readings
9
david m. newman
DePauw University
jodi o’brien
Seattle University
FOR INFORMATION:
Copyright  2013 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or
utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
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and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the
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Sociology : exploring the architecture of everyday life : readings /
editors, David M. Newman, Jodi O’Brien. — 9th ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 978-1-4129-8760-8 (pbk.)
1. Sociology. I. Newman, David M., 1958– II. O’Brien, Jodi.
HM586.S64 2013
301—dc23   2012031247
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Acquisitions Editor: David Repetto
Editorial Assistant: Lauren Johnson
Production Editor: Laureen Gleason
Copy Editor: Erin Livingston
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Ellen Howard
Cover Designer: Candice Harman
Marketing Manager: Erica DeLuca
Permissions Editor: Karen Ehrmann
12 13 14 15 16 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Contents
Preface
ix
About the Editors
xi
PART I.
THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY
1
Chapter 1. Taking a New Look at a Familiar World 3
Reading 1.1. The Sociological Imagination 5
C. Wright Mills
Reading 1.2. Invitation to Sociology 10
Peter Berger
Reading 1.3. The My Lai Massacre: A Military Crime of Obedience 14
Herbert Kelman and V. Lee Hamilton
Chapter 2. Seeing and Thinking Sociologically 27
Reading 2.1. The Metropolis and Mental Life 29
Georg Simmel
Reading 2.2. Gift and Exchange 35
Zygmunt Bauman
Reading 2.3. Culture of Fear 44
Barry Glassner
PART II.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF SELF AND SOCIETY
57
Chapter 3. Building Reality: The Social Construction of Knowledge 59
Reading 3.1. Concepts, Indicators, and Reality 61
Earl Babbie
Reading 3.2. Missing Numbers 65
Joel Best
Chapter 4. Building Order: Culture and History 75
Reading 4.1. Body Ritual among the Nacirema 77
Horace Miner
Reading 4.2. The Melting Pot 81
Anne Fadiman
Reading 4.3. McDonald’s in Hong Kong: Consumerism, Dietary Change, and the
Rise of a Children’s Culture 91
James L. Watson
Chapter 5. Building Identity: Socialization 99
Reading 5.1. Life as the Maid’s Daughter: An Exploration of
the Everyday Boundaries of Race, Class, and Gender 101
Mary Romero
Reading 5.2. The Making of Culture, Identity, and
Ethnicity Among Asian American Youth 110
Min Zhou and Jennifer Lee
Reading 5.3. Working ‘the Code’: On Girls, Gender, and Inner-City Violence
Nikki Jones
118
Chapter 6. Supporting Identity: The Presentation of Self 127
Reading 6.1. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life: Selections 129
Erving Goffman
Reading 6.2. Public Identities: Managing Race in Public Spaces 139
Karyn Lacy
Reading 6.3. The Girl Hunt: Urban Nightlife and the
Performance of Masculinity as Collective Activity 152
David Grazian
Chapter 7. Building Social Relationships: Intimacy and Family 161
Reading 7.1. The Radical Idea of Marrying for Love 163
Stephanie Coontz
Reading 7.2. Gay Parenthood and the End of Paternity as We Knew It 174
Judith Stacey
Reading 7.3. Covenant Marriage: Reflexivity and Retrenchment
in the Politics of Intimacy 189
Dwight Fee
Chapter 8. Constructing Difference: Social Deviance 195
Reading 8.1. Watching the Canary 197
Lani Guinier and Gerald Torres
Reading 8.2. Healing (Disorderly) Desire: Medical-Therapeutic Regulation of
Sexuality 201
P. J. McGann
Reading 8.3. Patients, “Potheads,” and Dying to Get High 212
Wendy Chapkis
PART III.
SOCIAL STRUCTURE, INSTITUTIONS, AND EVERYDAY LIFE
221
Chapter 9. The Structure of Society: Organizations and Social Institutions 223
Reading 9.1. These Dark Satanic Mills 225
William Greider
Reading 9.2. The Smile Factory: Work at Disneyland 235
John Van Maanen
Reading 9.3. Creating Consumers: Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids 245
Murry Milner
Chapter 10. The Architecture of Stratification: Social Class and Inequality 253
Reading 10.1. Making Class Invisible 255
Gregory Mantsios
Reading 10.2. The Compassion Gap in American Poverty Policy 262
Fred Block, Anna C. Korteweg, and Kerry Woodward,
with Zach Schiller and Imrul Mazid
Reading 10.3. Branded With Infamy: Inscriptions of Poverty and Class in America 271
Vivyan Adair
Chapter 11. The Architecture of Inequality: Race and Ethnicity 283
Reading 11.1. Racial and Ethnic Formation 285
Michael Omi and Howard Winant
Reading 11.2. Optional Ethnicities: For Whites Only? 292
Mary C. Waters
Reading 11.3. Silent Racism: Passivity in Well-Meaning White People 299
Barbara Trepagnier
Chapter 12. The Architecture of Inequality: Sex and Gender 309
Reading 12.1. Black Women and a New Definition of Womanhood 311
Bart Landry
Reading 12.2. Still a Man’s World: Men Who Do “Women’s Work” 323
Christine L. Williams
Reading 12.3. New Biomedical Technologies, New Scripts, New Genders 333
Eve Shapiro
Chapter 13. Global Dynamics and Population Demographic Trends 347
Reading 13.1. Age-Segregation in Later Life: An Examination of
Personal Networks 349
Peter Uhlenberg and Jenny de Jong Gierveld
Reading 13.2. Love and Gold 357
Arlie Russell Hochschild
Reading 13.3. Cyberbrides and Global Imaginaries: Mexican Women’s Turn
from the National to the Foreign 365
Felicity Schaeffer-Grabiel
Chapter 14. The Architects of Change: Reconstructing Society 377
Reading 14.1. Muslim American Immigrants After 9/11: The Struggle for Civil
Rights 379
Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo
Reading 14.2. The Seattle Solidarity Network:
A New Approach to Working Class Social Movements 388
Walter Winslow
Reading 14.3. “Aquí estamos y no nos vamos!” Global Capital
and Immigrant Rights 400
William I. Robinson
Credits
411
Preface
O
ne of the greatest challenges we face as teachers of sociology is getting our students to see the relevance of the course material to their own lives and to fully
appreciate its connection to the larger society. We teach our students to see that sociology is all around us. It’s in our families, our careers, our media, our jobs, our classrooms, our goals, our interests, our desires, and even our minds. Sociology can be
found at the neighborhood pub, in conversation with the clerk at 7-Eleven, on a date, and
in the highest offices of government. It’s with us when we’re alone and when we’re in a
group of people. Sociology focuses on questions of global significance as well as private
concerns. For instance, sociologists study how some countries create and maintain
dominance over others and also why we find some people more attractive than others.
Sociology is an invitation to understand yourself within the context of your historical
and cultural circumstances.
We have compiled this collection of short articles, chapters, and excerpts with the intent
of providing comprehensive examples of the power of sociology for helping us to make sense
of our lives and our times. The readings are organized in a format that demonstrates
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
the uniqueness of the sociological perspective
tools of sociological analysis
the significance of different cultures in a global world
social factors that influence identity development and self-management
social rules about family, relationships, and belonging
the influence of social institutions and organizations on everyday life
the significance of socioeconomic class, gender, and racial/ethnic backgrounds in everyday life
•• the significance of social demographics, such as aging populations and migration
•• the power of social groups and social change
In general, our intent is to demonstrate the significance of sociology in everyday
life and to show that what seems “obvious” is often not-so-obvious when subjected to
rigorous sociological analysis. The metaphor of “architecture” used in the title for this
reader illustrates the sociological idea that as social beings, we are constantly building
and rebuilding our own social environment. The sociological promise is that if we
understand these processes and how they affect us, we will be able to make more
informed choices about how to live our lives and engage in our communities.
As in the first eight editions of the reader, the selections in this edition are intended
to be vivid, provocative, and eye-opening examples of the practice of sociology. The readings represent a variety of styles. Some use common or everyday experiences and phenomena (such as drug use, employment, athletic performance, religious devotion, eating
fast food, and the balance of work and family) to illustrate the relationship between
the individual and society. Others focus on important social issues or problems
(medical social control, race relations, poverty, educational inequalities, sexuality, immigration, global economics, environmental degradation, or political extremism) or on
specific historical events (massacres during war, drug scares, and 9/11). Some were written
quite recently; others are sociological classics. In addition to accurately representing the
ix
x  SOCIOLOGY READINGS
sociological perspective and providing rigorous coverage of the discipline, we hope the
selections are thought-provoking, generate lots of discussion, and are enjoyable to read.
There are 41 selections in this reader, and 12 of them are new. These new readings
focus on current, important social issues such as the pace of life in urban societies, gift
exchange, media manipulation of statistics, status performance and race, parenting
among same-sex couples, marriage promotion, cyberbrides, sexual regulation and
consumer culture in high schools, gender technology in historical context, racism
among well-intended white people, and working-class social movement tactics.
Most of the new readings are based on research studies that were written in the past
5 years. In recent editions of this reader, we have increased the number of selections
drawn from contemporary social research. In doing so, we hope to provide you with
illustrations of the ways in which social researchers combine theories and empirical studies to gain a better understanding of social patterns and processes. Although the professional language of some of these selections may seem challenging for introductory readers, we are confident that you will find them highly relevant and come away with a sense
of being immersed in the most significant details of contemporary sociology.
To help you get the most out of these selections, we’ve written brief introductions
that provide the sociological context for each chapter. We also included reflection
points that can be used for comparing and contrasting the readings in each section and
across sections. For those of you who are also reading the accompanying textbook,
these introductions will furnish a quick intellectual link between the readings and
information in the textbook. We have also included in these introductions brief
instructions on what to look for when you read the selections in a given chapter. After
each reading, you will find a set of discussion questions to ponder. Many of these questions ask you to apply a specific author’s conclusions to some contemporary issue in
society or to your own life experiences. It is our hope that these questions will generate
a lot of classroom debate and help you see the sociological merit of the readings.
A website established for this ninth edition includes do-it-yourself reviews and
tests for students, web-based activities designed to enhance learning, and a chat room
where students and teachers can post messages and debate matters of sociological significance. The site can be accessed via the Pine Forge website at www.pineforge.com.
Books like these are enormous projects. We would like to thank David Repetto,
Laureen Gleason, Erin Livingston, and the rest of the staff at SAGE for their useful advice
and assistance in putting this reader together. It’s always a pleasure to work with this very
professional group. Thanks again to Jennifer Hamann for her assistance with reading
selections and editing. Michelle Robertson joins us in this edition as a contributing
editor, and we are especially grateful for her input.
Enjoy!
David M. Newman
Department of Sociology/Anthropology
DePauw University
Greencastle, IN 46135
E-mail: dnewman@depauw.edu
Jodi O’Brien
Department of Sociology
Seattle University
Seattle, WA 98122
E-mail: jobrien@seattleu.edu
About the Editors
David M. Newman (PhD, University of Washington) is Professor of Sociology at
DePauw University. In addition to the introductory course, he teaches courses in
research methods, family, social psychology, deviance, and mental illness. He has won
teaching awards at both the University of Washington and DePauw University. His
other written work includes Identities and Inequalities: Exploring the Intersections of
Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality (2012) and Families: A Sociological Perspective
(2008).
Jodi O’Brien (PhD, University of Washington) is Professor of Sociology at Seattle
University. She teaches courses in social psychology, sexuality, inequality, and classical
and contemporary theory. She writes and lectures on the cultural politics of
transgressive identities and communities. Her other books include Everyday Inequalities
(Basil Blackwell), Social Prisms: Reflections on Everyday Myths and Paradoxes (SAGE),
and The Production of Reality: Essays and Readings on Social Interaction (5th edition,
SAGE).
xi
PA R T I
The Individual
and Society
Taking a New Look
at a Familiar World
1
T
he primary claim of sociology is that our everyday feelings, thoughts, and actions
are the product of a complex interplay between massive social forces and personal
characteristics. We can’t understand the relationship between individuals and their
societies without understanding the connection between both. As C. Wright Mills
discusses in the introductory article, the “sociological imagination” is the ability to see
the impact of social forces on our private lives. When we develop a sociological
imagination, we gain an awareness that our lives unfold at the intersection of personal
biography and social history. The sociological imagination encourages us to move
beyond individualistic explanations of human experiences to an understanding of the
mutual influence between individuals and society. So rather than study what goes on
within people, sociologists study what goes on between and among people as
individuals, groups, organizations, or entire societies. Sociology teaches us to look
beyond individual personalities and focus instead on the influence of social phenomena
in shaping our ideas of who we are and what we think we can do.
Peter Berger, another well-known sociologist, invites us to consider the uniqueness
of the sociological enterprise. According to Berger, the sociologist is driven by an insatiable curiosity to understand the social conditions that shape human behavior. The
sociologist is also prepared to be surprised, disturbed, and sometimes even bored by
what he or she discovers. In this regard, the sociologist is driven to make sense of the
seemingly obvious with the understanding that once explored, it may not be so obvious after all. One example of the nonobvious is the influence that social institutions
have on our behavior. It’s not always easy to see this influence. We have a tendency to
see people’s behavior in individualistic, sometimes even biological, terms. This tendency toward individualistic explanations is particularly pronounced in U.S. society.
The influence of social institutions on our personal lives is often felt most forcefully when we are compelled to obey the commands of someone who is in a position
of institutional authority. The social institution with the most explicit hierarchy of
authority is the military. In “The My Lai Massacre: A Military Crime of Obedience,”
Herbert Kelman and V. Lee Hamilton describe a specific example of a crime in which
the individuals involved attempted to deny responsibility for their actions by claiming
that they were following the orders of a military officer who had the legitimate right to
command them. This incident occurred in the midst of the Vietnam War. Arguably,
people do things under such trying conditions that they wouldn’t ordinarily do,
even—as in this case—kill defenseless people. Kelman and Hamilton make a key
sociological point by showing that these soldiers were not necessarily psychological
misfits who were especially mean or violent. Instead, the researchers argue, they were
ordinary people caught up in tense circumstances that made obeying the brutal commands of an authority seem like the normal and morally acceptable thing to do.
3
4  PART 1
THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY
Something to Consider as You Read
As you read these selections, consider the effects of social context and situation on
behavior. Even though it might appear extreme, how might the behavior of these
soldiers be similar to other examples of social influence? Consider occasions in which
you have done something publicly that you didn’t feel right about personally. How do
you explain your behavior? How might a sociologist explain your behavior?
The Sociological Imagination
C. Wright Mills
(1959)
“The individual can . . . know his own chances in life only by becoming aware of those of
all individuals in his circumstances.”
Nowadays men often feel that their private
lives are a series of traps. They sense that
within their everyday worlds, they cannot
overcome their troubles, and in this feeling,
they are often quite correct: What ordinary
men are directly aware of and what they try to
do are bounded by the private orbits in which
they live; their visions and their powers are
limited to the close-up scenes of job, family,
neighborhood; in other milieux, they move
vicariously and remain spectators. And the
more aware they become, however vaguely, of
ambitions and of threats which transcend their
immediate locales, the more trapped they seem
to feel.
Underlying this sense of being trapped are
seemingly impersonal changes in the very
structure of continent-wide societies. The facts
of contemporary history are also facts about
the success and the failure of individual men
and women. When a society is industrialized, a
peasant becomes a worker; a feudal lord is liquidated or becomes a businessman. When
classes rise or fall, a man is employed or unemployed; when the rate of investment goes up or
down, a man takes new heart or goes broke.
When wars happen, an insurance salesman
becomes a rocket launcher; a store clerk, a
radar man; a wife lives alone; a child grows up
without a father. Neither the life of an individual nor the history of a society can be
understood without understanding both.
Yet men do not usually define the troubles
they endure in terms of historical change and
institutional contradiction. The well-being
they enjoy, they do not usually impute to the
big ups and downs of the societies in which
they live. Seldom aware of the intricate connection between the patterns of their own lives
and the course of world history, ordinary men
do not usually know what this connection
means for the kinds of men they are becoming
and for the kinds of history-making in which
they might take part. They do not possess the
quality of mind essential to grasp the interplay
of man and society, of biograph …
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