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Below is the discussion topic given:Information technology in a global economy. Information technology relates to the use of computers
for storage, networking, and communication among other functions. It
also includes transmission of information and manipulation of data,
often in the context of a business or enterprise. Advancements in
technology over the years have made the globalization of economies
possible thus resulting in increased trade and a generally positive
effect on the economy. Information technology has created many changes in the
business world through electronic commerce, which relates to the buying
and selling of products through electronic means such as over the
internet and mobile applications. This practice has enabled many
businesses to expand their markets to international levels with minimum
cost implications (Khan 19-20; Berisha-Shaqiri). It has also allowed
business people to select the best suppliers and find suitable business
partners from different parts of the world. Information technology has eliminated barriers such as
currency, geographical location, language, and time. Business
transactions such as purchases and payments can now be done easily over
the internet through applications such as PayPal. Organizations can also
market their businesses through the internet and interact with
suppliers and customers. Information technology has improved the
communication process in businesses through emails, websites and other
applications; companies can interact and provide instant feedback to
their customers (Oyza and Edwin). Improved communication enables
organizations to retain their customers. Despite the numerous advantages associated with
information technology, IT also has challenges, most of which revolve
around cyber threats and attacks. The number of organizations using
cloud computing and who share customer information on the internet has
increased. Advanced technology has contributed to increased cyber-crimes
such as hacking and unauthorized access to customers’ information
through the internet, which have led to significant losses experienced
by affected companies. Why do you believe organizations today need to be
conscious about policy -making in the digital age? Requirements 500-700 words. All work should be cited in APA citation. Refer to the content area APA citations . In order to receive full credit students need to respond to at least two post peers or the instructor post.
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Introduction to Policy-Making in the Digital
Age (Chapter 1)
Introduction
 Abrupt growth in data, social media, computational
power enhance policy-making.
 ICT cause drastic changes in the process.
 New approaches, instruments, and concepts helps in
utilizing digital development.
 Collaborations are needed to enhance practical
awareness.
 Disciplines involved include public administration,
complex systems, and simulation.
Complexity and Uncertainty
 Policy-making and implementation helps in dealing with
societal problems.
 ICT and new models are appropriate tools for policy-makers
quality improvements.
 policy analysis among other disciplines helps in taking
advantage of digital developments.
 Policy-makers have recognized the essentiality of ICT.
 The change is driven by simulation, visualization, data
processing among other developments.
 A large amount of data is useful in the forecast and making
predictions.
Complexity and Uncertainty
 Policy-making develop interventions that help in solving
societal problems.
 It involves formulation, implementation, execution,
enforcement, and evaluation.
 Upon identification of a societal issue, policy
formulation follows.
 Policy implementation make decisions on the procedures
to implement.
 Policy-making mainly involves the government and also
engage private organizations.
Complexity and Uncertainty
 After overall decisions have been made, policies are
executed.
 Decisions made on implementation may be challenging
to identify.
 The evaluation process ensures that societal problem are
solved in policy execution.
 The policy-making process is complex and requires
involvement of many stakeholders.
 Including many actors may cause fragmentation.
Complexity and Uncertainty
 Public values (PVs) manage complexity and offer
guidance on the policy-making process.
 Most policies are set focusing on specific benefits.
 Some PVs may be long-lasting while others may be
political-driven.
 Values are emphasized depending on the issue at hand.
 Federal officials have a role in collaborating and
enforcing dialogue with citizens.
Complexity and Uncertainty
Policy formulation
People’s will
Public interest
Balance of interests
Citizen involvement
Evidence-based formulation
Policy implementation
Accountability
Reliability
Efficiency
Flexibility
Timelessness
Robust
Policy execution
Individual rights protection
Efficiency
Responsiveness
Transparency
Fairness
Equal access
Honesty
Policy enforcement and
Transparency
evaluation
Farness
Evidence-based
Accountability
Complexity and Uncertainty
 Despite efforts of improving policy making, the outcomes are
still uncertain.
 Games may be useful in gaining insights into specific
situations.
 Complex problems faced by policy-makers have different
solutions.
 Policy-making organizations introduce strategies of
facilitating policy-making among others.
 Government agencies have also developed various platforms
of participation.
Developments
 Technology change an individual or group policy processes.
 The developments that influence traditional policy-making
include social media, open data, and blogs.
 Public collaboration is now involved in fulfilling proper
governance requirements.
 Collaborative governance entails structures of public policy
decision-making.
 Development platform paradigm that is empowered by digital
technology is essential in empowering citizens.
Availability of Big and Open Linked Data
(BOLD)
 Policy-making requires information concerning the current
scenarios and policies in decision-making.
 In the past, data was requested for, but currently it is readily
accessible.
 The use of open data and stimulating new practices requires
multiple perspectives.
 Since a vast amount of data can be generated, processing, and
visualization are required.
 BOLD provides analyzing policies and data use in predicting
new effective strategies.
Rise of Hybrid Simulation Approaches
 Both implementation and execution processes make
predictions of the outcomes complicated.
 Policy-making simulation is used for gaining a perception on
policies impacts.
 Decision-makers use simulation in understanding policy
significance among others.
 Open information can be beneficial for simulation since it
depends on data.
 Simulation models capture reality aspects hence being
suitable for complex systems.
Rise of Hybrid Simulation Approaches
 The central aspect of policy modeling is dealing with
uncertainties that are hard to predict.
 Simulation complications may result from
interdependencies of individual parts.
 Computer simulations have become a critical part of
policy-making.
 Hybrid model developments are needed.
 Agent-based modeling is appropriate because they
combine various models to a single simulation.
Ubiquitous User Engagement
 Designing public policies is confronted by multiple
complexities.
 Availability of enormous amount of data expand
dynamic systems study.
 Sophisticated data gathering techniques enable display
of information to a diverse audience.
 Policy makers require insights in dealing with issues.
 User involvement is demanded and achieved by using
appropriate games.
Combining Disciplines in e-government
Policy-Making
 The digital field can also be referred to as data science among
others.
 Different authors identify policy informatics as a tool to
navigate uncertainty.
 It is practice-driven in that it begins by identifying the
problem.
 The understanding of the process and public administration
are critical.
 Methods of presenting and disseminating the results are
agreed upon.
Combining Disciplines in e-government
Policy-Making
 There is an integrative relationship framework in a policymaking process.
 It captures three main actors and identifies their relationships
at a higher level.
 Administrations apply the doctrine in opening actions and
decisions to public scrutiny.
 There is a close link between policy-making and data science.
 Data scientists involved in policy-making search and interpret
data.
Conclusion
 Policy-making involves many stakeholders due to its
complexity in nature.
 Technology influence changes in stakeholders’
involvement and policy processes.
 Modeling and simulation integration techniques offer
insights on positive outcomes.
 Trends such as freedom of information cause some
changes.
 Therefore, interdisciplinary research is needed.
References
 Janowski, T., Estevez, E., & Baguma, R. (2018).
Platform governance for sustainable development:
Reshaping Citizen-administration relationships in the
digital age. Government Information Quarterly, 35(4),
1-16. doi: 10.1016/j.giq.2018.09.002
 Janssen, M., Wimmer, M., & Deljoo, A. (2015). Policy
practice and digital science. Cham Heidelberg New
York London: Springer.

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