1200 Words total. 3 apa cited reference and reference list. NO PLAGIARISM PLEASE!!!.1. Describe the five job attributes of the job characteristics model. 2. Explain the equity, expectancy, and goal-setting theories. 3. What is motivation and how does it work? Discuss nonmonetary ways of motivating employees. 4. If you were a consultant for your place of employment, what advice would you give to senior management about improving motivation efforts using nonmonetary methods? If you are currently not employed, research an organization and provide a recommendation. (USE STARBUCKS)ed
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Achieving Superior Performance
in the Workplace
Major Questions You
I Should Be Able to Answer
12.1 Motivating for Performance
Major Question: What’s the motivation for studying motivation?
12.2 Content Perspectives
on Employee Motivation
S What kinds of needs motivate employees?
12.3 Process Perspectives
on Employee Motivation
Major Question: Is a good reward good enough? How do
other factors affect
12.4 Job Design E
Perspectives on Motivation
Major Question: What’s the best way to design jobs—adapt
people to work
Ror work to people?
D Perspectives on Motivation
R What are the types of incentives I might use
to influence employee behavior?
12.6 Using Compensation & Other Rewards to Motivate
1 How can I use compensation and other
rewards to motivate people?
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the manager’s toolbox
Managing for Motivation: Keeping Employees
Invested in Their Jobs
“Get a life!” everyone says. But what, exactly, is a
As more and more people have begun asking this
question, it has spilled over into organizational life.
The result has been a new category of work rewards
and incentives called work–life benefits.
Balancing Work & Personal Lives
As one definition has it, work–life benefits are programs
“used by employers to increase productivity and com- I
mitment by removing certain barriers that make it hard
for people to strike a balance between their work and
personal lives.”1 Examples are nonsalary incentives
such as flexible work arrangements, tuition assistance, E
and paid time off for education and community service.
In managing for motivation, the subject of this
chapter, you need to be thinking about employees S
not as “human capital” or “capital assets” but as
people who are investors: they are investing their
time, energy, and intelligence—their lives—in your
organization, for which they deserve a return that
makes sense to them.
To keep your employees invested in their jobs and A
performing well, it helps to know what the Gallup
Organization discovered in surveying 80,000 managers
and 1 million workers over 25 years.2 Gallup found D
that in the best workplaces employees gave strong R
“yes” answers to the following 12 questions:
• Do I know what’s expected of me?
What Workers Want—Yes!
Do I have the right materials and equipment
I need to do my work right?
Do I have the opportunity to do what I do best
In the last seven days, have I received
recognition or praise for good work?
Does my supervisor, or someone at work, seem
to care about me as a person?
Is there someone at work who encourages
Does my opinion seem to count?
Does the mission of my company make me
feel like my work is important?
Are my coworkers committed to doing quality work?
Do I have a best friend at work?
In the last six months, have I talked with
someone about my progress?
Have I had opportunities to learn and grow?
Involving Employees in the Company’s Success
The best managers, Gallup says, meet with workers
individually at least every three months, not just once
or twice a year. In doing so, they not only discuss
performance but also try to find out what employees
want to accomplish and how the manager can help.
In addition, good managers focus on strengths,
rather than weaknesses, allowing employees to
devote time to what they do best.
Even before Fortune magazine began publishing
its annual list of “The 100 Best Companies to Work
For” (Google was No. 1 in 2014), managers had been
concerned about trying to motivate their employees.
In prerecession times, according to a project leader
who helped with the Fortune list, the best companies
kept their employees an average of 6 years, as opposed to a U.S. average of 3.6 years. They accomplished this by pushing for employees at all levels to
feel involved in the company’s success.3
For Discussion Which 3 of the 12 questions listed
above are most important to you? Which do you think
are most important to most employees?
What’s Ahead in This Chapter
This chapter discusses motivation from four perspectives: content (theories by Maslow,
McClelland, Deci and Ryan, and Herzberg); process (equity, expectancy, and goal-setting theories); job design; and reinforcement. We then consider rewards for motivating performance.
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Motivating for Performance
What’s the motivation for studying motivation?
THE BIG PICTURE
Motivation is defined as the psychological processes that arouse and direct people’s goal-directed behavior.
The model of how it works is that people have certain needs that motivate them to perform specific behaviors for which they receive rewards, both extrinsic and intrinsic, that feed back and satisfy the original need.
The three major perspectives on motivation are need-based, process, and reinforcement.
What would make you rise a halfI hour earlier than usual to ensure you got to work on
time—and to perform your best once there? Among the possible inducements (such as
C Salesforce): free snacks, on-site laundry, child care
those offered by SAS, Google, and
assistance, freedom to paint yourKwalls, scholarships for employees’ children, having
your dog at work.4
Ehigh or low, there are always companies, industries,
Whether employment rates are
and occupations in which employers
R feel they need to bend over backward to retain
their human capital.
Motivation: What It Is, Why It’s Important
Why do people do the things they
Tdo? The answer is this: they are mainly motivated to
fulfill their wants, their needs.
What Is Motivation & How A
Does It Work? Motivation may be defined as the
psychological processes that arouse
R and direct goal-directed behavior.5 Motivation is
difficult to understand because you can’t actually see it or know it in another person; it
D Nevertheless, it’s imperative that you as a manmust be inferred from one’s behavior.
ager understand the process of R
motivation if you are to guide employees in accomplishing your organization’s objectives.
A is complex, the result of multiple personal and
The way motivation works actually
contextual factors. (See Figure 12.1.)
An integrated model
Personal factors 9
• Core self-evaluations
• Organizational culture
• Cross-cultural values
• Physical environment
• Rewards and reinforcement
• Group norms
• Communication technology
• Leader behavior
• Organizational design
Motivation & employee engagement
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The individual personal factors that employees bring to the workplace range from
personality to ability to emotions to attitudes, many of which we described in Chapter
11. The contextual factors range from organizational culture, to cross-cultural values, to
the physical environment, and other matters we discuss in this chapter and the next.
Both categories of factors influence an employee’s level of motivation and engagement
However, motivation can also be expressed in a simple model—namely, that
people have certain needs that motivate them to perform specific behaviors
for which they receive rewards that feed back and satisfy the original need. (See
Figure 12.2, below.)
Desire is created
Two types of
Yo choose a type
You search for
to fulfill a need—as
o behavior you
ways to satisfy
for food, safety,
Feedback Reward informs you whether behavior worked and should be used again.
A simple model of motivation
A (need), which impels you
For example, as an hourly worker you desire more money
(motivates you) to work more hours (behavior), whichR
provides you with more money
(reward) and informs you (feedback loop) that working more hours will fulfill your need
for more money in the future.
Rewards (as well as motivation itself) are of two R
types—extrinsic and intrinsic.6
Managers can use both to encourage better work performance.
Extrinsic rewards—satisfaction in the payoff from others. An extrinsic reward
is the payoff, such as money, a person receives from others for performing a
particular task. An extrinsic reward is an external
1 reward; the payoff comes
from pleasing others.
Example: An experiment by General Electric found that paying employees
who were smokers up to $750—an extrinsic reward—to
quit and stay off cigarettes was three times as successful as a comparison group that got no paid
incentives.7 (Some firms are asking their employees to pay higher insurance
premiums or adopt other financial incentivesTto spur them to quit smoking,
lose weight, or join a fitness program.8)
Intrinsic rewards—satisfaction in performing the task itself. An intrinsic
reward is the satisfaction, such as a feeling of accomplishment, a person
receives from performing the particular task itself. An intrinsic reward is an
internal reward; the payoff comes from pleasing yourself.
Example: Jenny Balaze left her post in Ernst & Young LLC’s Washington, DC, office to spend 12 weeks in Buenos Aires as a volunteer providing free accounting services to a small publishing firm. It was among “the
best three months of my life,” says the 27-year-old business advisory services manager.9
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We all are motivated by a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Which
type of reward is more valuable to you? Answering this question can help you generate
self-motivation and higher performance. Find out about your relative interest in extrinsic and intrinsic rewards by taking Self-Assessment 12.1.
Are You More Interested in Extrinsic or Intrinsic
The following survey was designed to assess extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Go to connect.mheducation.com and
take Self-Assessment 12.1. When you’re done, answer the
What is more important to you, extrinsic or intrinsic
V rewards? Are you surprised by the results?
2. How can you use the results to increase your motivation
I to obtain good grades in your classes?
3.C If you were managing someone like yourself, what would
K you do to increase the individual’s motivation?
Why Is Motivation Important? It seems obvious that organizations would want
to motivate their employees to be, more productive. Actually, though, as a manager you
will find knowledge of motivation important for five reasons.10 In order of importance,
you want to motivate people to:
1. Join your organization. You need to instill in talented prospective workers
the desire to come to work for you.
2. Stay with your organization.
Whether you are in good economic times or
bad, you always want toRbe able to retain good people.
3. Show up for work at your
D organization. In many organizations, absenteeism and lateness are tremendous problems.11
4. Be engaged while at your organization. Engaged employees produce
higher-quality work andA
better customer service.
5. Do extra for your organization. You hope your employees will perform extra
tasks above and beyond the call of duty (be organizational “good citizens”).
The Four Major Perspectives
on Motivation: Overview
There is no theory accepted by everyone
as to what motivates people. In this chapter,
therefore, we present the four principal
From these, you may be able to
select what ideas seem most workable to you. The four perspectives on motivation are
(1) content, (2) process, (3) job design,
and (4) reinforcement, as described in the following four main sections. ●
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Content Perspectives on Employee Motivation
What kinds of needs motivate employees?
THE BIG PICTURE
Content perspectives are theories emphasizing the needs that motivate people. Needs are defined as
physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior. The content perspective includes
four theories: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, McClelland’s acquired needs theory, Deci and Ryan’s
self-determination theory, and Herzberg’s two-factor theory.
Content perspectives, also known as need-based perspectives,
are theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people. Content theorists
kind of needs
motivate employees in the workplace?” Needs are defined as physiological or psychoC
logical deficiencies that arouse behavior. They can be strong or weak, and, because
they are influenced by environmental factors, they canKvary over time and from place
In addition to McGregor’s Theory X/Theory Y (see Chapter 2), content perspectives
include four theories:
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
McClelland’s acquired needs theory
Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory
Herzberg’s two-factor theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory:
In 1943, one of the first researchers to study motivation,
R Brandeis University psychology professor Abraham Maslow (mentioned previously in Chapter 2) put forth his
hierarchy of needs theory, which proposes that people are motivated by five levels of
needs: (1) physiological, (2) safety, (3) love, (4) esteem,
R and (5) self-actualization.12
(See Figure 12.3.)
1. Physiological need—the most basic human physical need: Need for food, clothing, shelter, comfort, selfpreservation. Workplace example: these are covered by wages.
2. Safety need: Need for physical safety, emotional security, avoidance of violence. Workplace examples: health
insurance, job security, work safety rules, pension plans satisfy this need.
3. Love need: Need for love, friendship, affection. Workplace examples: office parties, company softball teams,
4. Esteem need: Need for self-respect, status, reputation, recognition, self-confidence. Workplace examples:
bonuses, promotions, awards.
5. Self-actualization need—the highest level need: Need for self-fulfillment: increasing competence, using
abilities to the fullest. Workplace example: sabbatical leave to further personal growth.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
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The Five Levels of Needs In proposing this hierarchy of five needs, ranging from
basic to highest level, Maslow suggested that needs are never completely satisfied.
That is, our actions are aimed at fulfilling the “deprived” needs, the needs that remain
unsatisfied at any point in time. Thus, for example, once you have achieved safety
(security), which is the second most basic need, you will then seek to fulfill the third
most basic need—love (belongingness).
Looking for Peak Performance: A Hotel CEO Applies Maslow’s Hierarchy
to Employees, Customers, & Investors
Chip Conley is CEO and founder of boutique hotel company Joie
de Vivre (JDV), whose mission statement is “creating opportunities to celebrate the joy of life.” In Peak: How Great Companies
Get Their Mojo from Maslow, he describes how JDV used
Maslow’s theory to motivate the business’s three key stakeholders—
employees, customers, and investors—by tapping into the
power of self-actualization to create peak performance.13
Motivating Employees. Applying the Maslow pyramid to employees, says Conley, “the basic need that a job satisfies is money.
Toward the middle are needs like recognition for a job well done,
and at the top are needs like meaning and creative expression.”14
Thus, housekeepers, who represent half of a hotel’s workers, would be gathered in small groups and asked what the
hotels would look like if they weren’t there each day. Following
their answers (unvacuumed carpets, piled-up trash, bathrooms
filled with wet towels), they were then asked to come up with
alternative names for housekeeping. Some responses: “serenity keepers,” “clutter busters,” “the peace-of-mind police.”
From this exercise, workers developed a sense of how the
customer experience would not be the same without them.15
V that, says Conley, “gets to a sense of meaning in your work
that satisfies that high-level human motivation.” Addressing
the highest-level need gives employees “a sense that the job
C them become the best people they can be.”16
Customers. Many hotels offer clean, safe accommodations.
designs each of its 30 hotels to “flatter and vindicate
a different category of customers’ distinct self-image,” says Conley.
R in San Francisco, the Hotel Rex’s tweedy décor and Jack
S touches appeal to urbane literary types. The Vitale’s
fitness-conscious services and minimalist design target “the kind
of bourgeois bohemian who might like Dwell Magazine.”17
Motivating Investors. Although most investors focus on a
relationship” (bottom of the pyramid), some have
They are driven not by the deal “but rather [by]
an interesting, worthwhile deal,” which JDV attempts to provide.18
ToDwhat extent can Chip Conley’s ideas be used in larger
Using the Hierarchy of Needs Theory to Motivate Employees
does not clearly support Maslow’s theory, although it remains popular among managers.
Still, the importance of Maslow’s
1 contribution is that he showed that workers have
needs beyond that of just earning a paycheck. To the extent the organization permits,
managers should first try to meet employees’ level 1 and level 2 needs, of course, so
that employees won’t be preoccupied
with them. Then, however, they need to give
employees a chance to fulfill their
needs in ways that also advance the
goals of the organization.19
McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory: Achievement,
Affiliation, & Power
David McClelland, a well-known psychologist, investigated the needs for affiliation and power and as a consequence proposed the acquired needs theory, which
states that three needs—achievement, affiliation, and power—are major motives
determining people’s behavior in the workplace.20 McClelland believes that we are
not born with our needs; rather we learn them from the culture—from our life
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The Three Needs
Managers are encouraged to recognize three needs in themselves and others and to attempt to create work environments that are responsive to
them. The three needs, one of which tends to be dominant in each of us, are as follows.
(See Figure 12.4, …
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