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Ecology
1. In an aquatic ecosystem, the aquatic plants are eaten by small invertebrates that in turn are
eaten by crayfish, the crayfish are eaten by fish, and the fish are eaten by ducks. In this system,
the greatest amount of biomass would be found in the A. crayfish. B. small invertebrates. C. fish.
D. aquatic plants.
2. Forests help to regulate the global climate by A. preventing soil erosion. B. absorbing carbon
dioxide. C. emitting ozone. D. releasing oxygen.
3. Which of the following is an example of an ecosystem? A. A coral reef together with all the
fishes and invertebrates living in and around it B. Rabbits eating carrots C. Male prairie chickens
competing for access to mates D. Flowering plants and all the insects and birds that pollinate
them
4. A species’ particular position in a community is its A. habitat. B. range. C. niche. D.
community.
5. Keystone species play a key role in A. habitat destruction. B. niche specialization. C.
community stability. D. mutualism.
6. The most common cause of desertification is A. overgrazing. B. mining. C. the construction of
dams. D. drought.
7. Emperor penguins defend an area around their nests. Their territory encompasses a complete
circle around the nest with approximately a 0.5 m radius. If each nesting penguin has this same
size and shape territory, what type of distribution will these animals exhibit? A. Clumped B.
Uniform C. Random D. Dense
8. Which of the following activities will help make rural societies more sustainable? A. Plant
multipurpose trees B. Create greenbelts C. Improve storm water management D. Design energy
efficient forms of transportation
9. Grass, deer, rabbits, fox, and bear all make up what level of biological organization? A.
Biosphere B. Community C. Population D. Ecosystem
10. All of the following are renewable sources of energy except _______ power. A. nuclear B.
wind C. solar D. geothermal
11. Study the following food chain: grass → rabbits → snakes → hawks. From this chain, you
can correctly assume that each population A. is always larger than the one before it. B. is a
species of herbivore. C. is a carnivore. D. supports the next trophic level.
12. Modern fishing practices threaten biodiversity mainly through the A. accidental capture of
unwanted species. B. chemical poisoning of the water. C. physical destruction of marine habitats.
D. removal of community food supplies.
13. Which one of the following phrases describes many countries within Asia and Africa? A.
MDCs experiencing rapid population growth B. MDCs experiencing slow population growth C.
LDCs experiencing rapid population growth D. LDCs experiencing slow population growth
14. What is the correct ratio of fossil fuel consumption between the MDCs and LDCs? A.
MDCs 60% vs. LDCs 40% B. MDCs 80% vs. LDCs 20% C. MDCs 50% vs. LDCs 50% D.
MDCs 40% vs. LDCs 60%
15. Which one of the following is an example of resource partitioning? A. A species of butterfly
and a species of bee that pollinate the same flower B. Two species of birds that eat fruit from the
same tree C. Two species of mice—one that lives in the woods and the other that lives in fields
D. Two species of squirrels—one that eats acorns from the branches and one that eats acorns that
have fallen to the ground
16. Which ecosystem makes up approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface? A. Aquatic; coral
reefs B. Aquatic; fresh water C. Terrestrial; tundra D. Aquatic; marine
17. Which of the following was one result of the “Green Revolution”? A. The protection of
species diversity B. An increase in the yield of crops in less-developed countries C. The
conservation of topsoil D. An increased reliance on polyculture agriculture
18. Which one of the following interspecies relationships has a negative effect on the abundance
of both species? A. Competition B. Parasitism C. Commensalism D. Predation
19. Which of the following brought about an increase in human populations by increasing the
amount of End of exam food and medicine available and decreasing the death rate? A. Industrial
revolution B. Invention of the car C. The Internet D. World War II
20. Which of the following does not describe an MDC? A. It’s highly industrialized. B. It has
undergone the demographic transition. C. Its age structure diagram resembles a pyramid. D. It
generally experiences replacement reproduction

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