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Attacks on our national infrastructure are already happening. And the expectation is that they will continue to increase at an accelerated rate. For this week’s discussion, we’ll cover threats to our nation’s pipelines. To get started, read this article: https://www.eenews.net/stories/1060054924Questions:Discuss how the types of threats discussed in the article could impact our economy.How implementing Diversity and Commonality could help mitigate these threats.Instructions:Need minimum 500 wordsNeed 3 APA ReferencesNo plagiarism pleaseNeed 3 responses (Use uploaded Document) (150 words Each)
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Attacks on our national infrastructure are already happening. And the expectation is that they
will continue to increase at an accelerated rate. For this week’s discussion, we’ll cover threats
to our nation’s pipelines. To get started, read this article:
https://www.eenews.net/stories/1060054924
Questions:

Discuss how the types of threats discussed in the article could impact our economy.

How implementing Diversity and Commonality could help mitigate these threats.
Instructions:

Need minimum 300 words

Need 3 APA References

No plagiarism please
Initial Post 1:
Every nation has huge energy requirements that require huge energy infrastructure.
There is a lot of resource mining-related infrastructure that is vulnerable to hacking.
Ever since the natural gas pipeline attacks in the United States during 2012, the world
community has understood the possibility and the implications of infrastructural
hacking (Crooks, 2012).
Effects
As in any other country, the implications of the hacking of any building, plant, or
pipeline that is involved in energy production or distribution shall be devastating. It
may disrupt the resource distribution throughout the country, which would have
catastrophic consequences for the ordinary flow of life in the country. The hacking of a
natural gas pipeline may lead to an electrical shortage throughout the country, since the
reserves may not be adequate to meet this threat. This would result in a huge blow to the
economy and cause great financial losses.
Also, in case the hacking is done by a hostile country or organization for terrorist
purposes, a blast at the plant would result in heavy damage to life and property. In the
case of nuclear energy generation plants, it is now possible to cause a Chernobyl level
incident just through a computer (GRESHKO et al., 2019). Such an incident would not
only result in the short term loss of life but would also irrevocably damage the
environment for generations to come.
Diversity and Commonality
Finding a solution to this problem is an issue crucial to the national security of the
country. One of the very basic commandments of cyber-security that can be followed
here is Diversity and Commonality. Since there is a difference in the way various people
perceive various threats, putting several diverse people on the job of protecting a certain
structure may actually result in a lot of good, since the problem will be solved in many
different ways and the maximum number of possible flaws will be taken care of
(Sobczak, Northey & Behr, 2017). At the same time, commonality or uniformity means
that a loophole identified and fixed in one structure or code may be presented in many
other similar structures as well, where it must be solved in a different way so as to
prevent a Domino hacking.
Conclusion
Every country is vulnerable to cyber-attacks that will have crippling effects on the
economy. It is necessary to deal with the issues of cyber-security and ensure that all
infrastructures are safe from such attacks.
Initial post 2:


Technology has created an integrated environment where critical national infrastructures
are linked to many related systems and are accessible over the internet to easily and efficiently
manage them. With the advancement of technology, attackers are also getting stronger and are
looking for ways to breach secure critical infrastructure. The energy sector is one of the critical
infrastructures of the U.S. economy. As stated on the DHS website that “Without a stable energy
supply, health and welfare are threatened, and the U.S. economy cannot function”. Norton, B.
(2015) reported in the wall street journal that DHS reported 245 cybersecurity incidents in 2014.
This shows a continuous threat to critical infrastructure. It is important to secure our energy
systems to be more resilient, secure, and reliable against cyber threats. Diversity and
commonalities are the approaches that will help create a resilient infrastructure. When there is
diversity in the infrastructure, then the adversary is forced to make many assumptions about the
target system before initiating a cyber-attack.
In the article Sobczak, B., Northey, H. & Behr, P. (2017) mentioned many threats to
America’s energy backbone. Some of the critical ones are the following:
Cyber-attack on power-grid in East Cost can be recovered in a timely manner but if the gas line
is shut off then there is no estimate how long it will take for recovery.
Power generation relies heavily on natural gas. There are very few alternatives to source of
electricity.


For convenience sensors and controllers are accessible over the internet. This can open doors for
cyber-attacks;
A major gas pipeline failure is going to black out regions where there are too few other sources
of electricity to pull from.
Amoroso, E. G. (2013, p. 105) stated that the critical path to national infrastructure must
rely on diverse vendors, suppliers, support teams, and technology. From the article, the major
U.S. electricity needs are fulfilled from the coal and gas supply. Looking to diversify the energy
providers, and fuel sources to nuclear power, hydropower, wind, solar, etc. will reduce the
dependency on gas and coal. Another issue identified in the article is related to the technology
advancement in operations which is making it difficult to fall back to manual operations to
restore services or shut-off devices in case of a cyber-attack. Electricity is a critical infrastructure
for the nation so dual operations (digital and manual) must be kept operational in case a major
incident happens. Other ways to create diversity includes establishing resiliency standards,
creating awareness, and creating a security protection culture. Energy sector must also look at
diverse computational and communication platforms, mix of vendors, and devices to support the
cybersecurity measures of the critical infrastructure.
Initial post 3:
The country relies upon the interstate pipeline framework to convey oil, gaseous
petrol, and then some. This undeniably automated framework is an appealing
focus for programmers and terrorists. The U.S. utility sector faces a large number
of endeavored cyber interruptions daily. However, till date, a cyber attack hasn’t
effectively closed down the U.S. control matrix, but still, the danger is genuine.
Impact on our economy –
Despite the fact that there have been no purposeful discharges from U.S.
pipelines because of bombing or cyber-attacks, coincidental discharges may
delineate the potential results of an effective attack. Pipeline accidents in the
United States, in general, cause a couple of fatalities contrasted with other item
transportation modes, however, such accidents have been cataclysmic in a few
cases. For instance, a 1999 fuel pipeline accident in Bellingham, WA, slaughtered
three individuals and caused $45 million in harm to a city water plant and other
property. A 2014 gaseous petrol circulation pipeline blast in New York City
slaughtered eight individuals, harmed 50 others, demolished two five-story
structures, and caused the transitory conclusion of a travel line due to debris.22
Such accidents exhibit the potential hazard to human life, property, and nature.
Disturbance of administration from these pipelines additionally caused financial
and operational effects among the pipelines’ clients. Few other aspects that come
into consideration affecting the economy are:
Internet Exposure- Beyond customer and business information — energy
organizations have many restrictive data about their possessions, exchanging
methodologies and investigation and generation advancements — the expanding reliance
of pipeline foundation on computerized frameworks makes them an especially ready
target. Control valves, weight screens and other gear associated with remote systems are
fundamental to day by day elements of everything from processing plants to oil wells.

Technical nightmares- In a world progressively associated by technology, we’re
seeing more reports of cyber-attacks on oil and gas and other energy-related enterprises as
the quantity of passage focuses for programmers increments. Without a doubt, the U.S.
Department of Homeland Security as of late revealed that Russian programmers had made
it into the control rooms of U.S. electric utilities, accessing conceivably prompt damage to
U.S. basic framework. The attack’s objective seems to have been Latitude Technologies.
American gas pipeline organizations were targeted in 2012, despite the fact that the harm
was accepted to have been constrained. Representatives of a few pipeline organizations
have been focuses of lance phishing attacks — endeavors to draw them to tap on email
connections containing malignant code.

Implementing Diversity and Commonality –
With the high number of the section focuses along the energy esteem chain, the
rise of IIoT, and the potential harm or disturbance that a digital occurrence could
perpetrate on the security – and economy of any oil-creating nation – the oil and
gas industry will keep on being attractive to hackers. Oil and gas organizations
ought to go a long ways past their yearly attacks and infiltration testing and
ought to connect with a firm to give adversary attack simulation services, risk
chasing and obtain danger insight concentrated on their most basic resources.
Perform observation of an energy organization, access frameworks and explore
to basic operational innovation and ICS (modern control) frameworks. We at that
point teach that organization on how and where we ought to have been ceased.
This causes the firm to turn out to be better arranged for a real assault by
competing with a “Red Team” foe whose just intention is to instruct.
To help migrate these risks, here are three different ways to help prepare for
cyber-attacks:


Don’t wait until a breach happens -Set up a normal commitment for threat chasing
groups to look at systems and guarantee all traffic is by and large effectively observed
to identify attacks.
Adopt a continuous response model – Direct table top activities or other dynamic
training guarantee representatives, senior administrators comprehend their job

because of a rupture. Make an episode reaction plan on the off chance that one doesn’t
exist and test it regularly.
Enhance your threat-intelligence capabilities through advanced data
analytics. Anticipate risks and embrace a progressively proactive way to deal with
cautious systems through the usage of significant threat insight.
Instructions:
Need 3 replies (150 words each)
Attacks on our national infrastructure are already happening. And the expectation is that they
will continue to increase at an accelerated rate. For this week’s discussion, we’ll cover threats
to our nation’s pipelines. To get started, read this article:
https://www.eenews.net/stories/1060054924
Questions:

Discuss how the types of threats discussed in the article could impact our economy.

How implementing Diversity and Commonality could help mitigate these threats.
Instructions:

Need minimum 500 words

Need 3 APA References

No plagiarism please
Initial Post 1:
Every nation has huge energy requirements that require huge energy infrastructure.
There is a lot of resource mining-related infrastructure that is vulnerable to hacking.
Ever since the natural gas pipeline attacks in the United States during 2012, the world
community has understood the possibility and the implications of infrastructural
hacking (Crooks, 2012).
Effects
As in any other country, the implications of the hacking of any building, plant, or
pipeline that is involved in energy production or distribution shall be devastating. It
may disrupt the resource distribution throughout the country, which would have
catastrophic consequences for the ordinary flow of life in the country. The hacking of a
natural gas pipeline may lead to an electrical shortage throughout the country, since the
reserves may not be adequate to meet this threat. This would result in a huge blow to the
economy and cause great financial losses.
Also, in case the hacking is done by a hostile country or organization for terrorist
purposes, a blast at the plant would result in heavy damage to life and property. In the
case of nuclear energy generation plants, it is now possible to cause a Chernobyl level
incident just through a computer (GRESHKO et al., 2019). Such an incident would not
only result in the short term loss of life but would also irrevocably damage the
environment for generations to come.
Diversity and Commonality
Finding a solution to this problem is an issue crucial to the national security of the
country. One of the very basic commandments of cyber-security that can be followed
here is Diversity and Commonality. Since there is a difference in the way various people
perceive various threats, putting several diverse people on the job of protecting a certain
structure may actually result in a lot of good, since the problem will be solved in many
different ways and the maximum number of possible flaws will be taken care of
(Sobczak, Northey & Behr, 2017). At the same time, commonality or uniformity means
that a loophole identified and fixed in one structure or code may be presented in many
other similar structures as well, where it must be solved in a different way so as to
prevent a Domino hacking.
Conclusion
Every country is vulnerable to cyber-attacks that will have crippling effects on the
economy. It is necessary to deal with the issues of cyber-security and ensure that all
infrastructures are safe from such attacks.
Initial post 2:


Technology has created an integrated environment where critical national infrastructures
are linked to many related systems and are accessible over the internet to easily and efficiently
manage them. With the advancement of technology, attackers are also getting stronger and are
looking for ways to breach secure critical infrastructure. The energy sector is one of the critical
infrastructures of the U.S. economy. As stated on the DHS website that “Without a stable energy
supply, health and welfare are threatened, and the U.S. economy cannot function”. Norton, B.
(2015) reported in the wall street journal that DHS reported 245 cybersecurity incidents in 2014.
This shows a continuous threat to critical infrastructure. It is important to secure our energy
systems to be more resilient, secure, and reliable against cyber threats. Diversity and
commonalities are the approaches that will help create a resilient infrastructure. When there is
diversity in the infrastructure, then the adversary is forced to make many assumptions about the
target system before initiating a cyber-attack.
In the article Sobczak, B., Northey, H. & Behr, P. (2017) mentioned many threats to
America’s energy backbone. Some of the critical ones are the following:
Cyber-attack on power-grid in East Cost can be recovered in a timely manner but if the gas line
is shut off then there is no estimate how long it will take for recovery.
Power generation relies heavily on natural gas. There are very few alternatives to source of
electricity.


For convenience sensors and controllers are accessible over the internet. This can open doors for
cyber-attacks;
A major gas pipeline failure is going to black out regions where there are too few other sources
of electricity to pull from.
Amoroso, E. G. (2013, p. 105) stated that the critical path to national infrastructure must
rely on diverse vendors, suppliers, support teams, and technology. From the article, the major
U.S. electricity needs are fulfilled from the coal and gas supply. Looking to diversify the energy
providers, and fuel sources to nuclear power, hydropower, wind, solar, etc. will reduce the
dependency on gas and coal. Another issue identified in the article is related to the technology
advancement in operations which is making it difficult to fall back to manual operations to
restore services or shut-off devices in case of a cyber-attack. Electricity is a critical infrastructure
for the nation so dual operations (digital and manual) must be kept operational in case a major
incident happens. Other ways to create diversity includes establishing resiliency standards,
creating awareness, and creating a security protection culture. Energy sector must also look at
diverse computational and communication platforms, mix of vendors, and devices to support the
cybersecurity measures of the critical infrastructure.
Initial post 3:
The country relies upon the interstate pipeline framework to convey oil, gaseous
petrol, and then some. This undeniably automated framework is an appealing
focus for programmers and terrorists. The U.S. utility sector faces a large number
of endeavored cyber interruptions daily. However, till date, a cyber attack hasn’t
effectively closed down the U.S. control matrix, but still, the danger is genuine.
Impact on our economy –
Despite the fact that there have been no purposeful discharges from U.S.
pipelines because of bombing or cyber-attacks, coincidental discharges may
delineate the potential results of an effective attack. Pipeline accidents in the
United States, in general, cause a couple of fatalities contrasted with other item
transportation modes, however, such accidents have been cataclysmic in a few
cases. For instance, a 1999 fuel pipeline accident in Bellingham, WA, slaughtered
three individuals and caused $45 million in harm to a city water plant and other
property. A 2014 gaseous petrol circulation pipeline blast in New York City
slaughtered eight individuals, harmed 50 others, demolished two five-story
structures, and caused the transitory conclusion of a travel line due to debris.22
Such accidents exhibit the potential hazard to human life, property, and nature.
Disturbance of administration from these pipelines additionally caused financial
and operational effects among the pipelines’ clients. Few other aspects that come
into consideration affecting the economy are:
Internet Exposure- Beyond customer and business information — energy
organizations have many restrictive data about their possessions, exchanging
methodologies and investigation and generation advancements — the expanding reliance
of pipeline foundation on computerized frameworks makes them an especially ready
target. Control valves, weight screens and other gear associated with remote systems are
fundamental to day by day elements of everything from processing plants to oil wells.

Technical nightmares- In a world progressively associated by technology, we’re
seeing more reports of cyber-attacks on oil and gas and other energy-related enterprises as
the quantity of passage focuses for programmers increments. Without a doubt, the U.S.
Department of Homeland Security as of late revealed that Russian programmers had made
it into the control rooms of U.S. electric utilities, accessing conceivably prompt damage to
U.S. basic framework. The attack’s objective seems to have been Latitude Technologies.
American gas pipeline organizations were targeted in 2012, despite the fact that the harm
was accepted to have been constrained. Representatives of a few pipeline organizations
have been focuses of lance phishing attacks — endeavors to draw them to tap on email
connections containing malignant code.

Implementing Diversity and Commonality –
With the high number of the section focuses along the energy esteem chain, the
rise of IIoT, and the potential harm or disturbance that a digital occurrence could
perpetrate on the security – and economy of any oil-creating nation – the oil and
gas industry will keep on being attractive to hackers. Oil and gas organizations
ought to go a long ways past their yearly attacks and infiltration testing and
ought to connect with a firm to give adversary attack simulation services, risk
chasing …
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