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Exercise 12
1. Discuss the differences between parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques.
Provide an example of parametric statistical technique and a nonparametric statistical
technique applying the algorithm in Figure 12-1.
2. What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on examining
associations or relationships that had variables measured at the ordinal level and
included one group? Provide a rationale for your answer.
3. What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on examining
differences that had variables measured at the ratio level and included three
independent groups (interventions, placebo, and control)? Provide a rationale.
4. What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on predicting a
dependent variable using one independent variable that was measured at the
interval/ratio level in a sample of patients with heart failure? Provide a rationale.
5. What statistical technique was probably conducted for a study focused on examining
differences that had variables measured at the ordinal level and included three paired
samples or groups? Provide rationale.
6. Study hypothesis: Nurses working in healthcare organizations with magnet status have
higher job satisfaction than nurses working in organizations without magnet status. Job
satisfaction was measures with a multi-item Likert scale. What statistical technique
would researchers probably conduct to test this hypothesis? Provide a rationale.
7. Harrington (213) examined relationships among physical activities, weight, and sleep
duration (measured in minutes per night) in a sample of 8-year-old children. What
inferential statistics technique did Harrington conduct in analyzing her study data?
Provide a rationale.
8. Harrington (2013) determined differences between students failing grades and students
with passing grades for sleep in minutes (SLEEP). What statistical technique did
Harrington conduct to examine these differences? Provide rationale.
9. Smith and colleagues (2014, p.68) developed the following questions to guide their
study. “What are the relationships among the variables of perceived stress, sleep
quality, loneliness, and self-esteem among obese young adult women?” The variables
were measured with multi-item Likert scales, and the data were considered at the
interval level. What inferential statistical technique did these researchers conduct to
analyze their study data? Provide rationale.
10. Lindseth (2014, p. 187) conducted a quasi-experimental study to examine the effects of
low and high aspartame diets on depression, mood, working memory, and spatial
orientation. These variables were measured at the interval or ratio level. “The
participants served as their own control.” What statistical technique did Lindseth
conduct to analyze the data for the four dependent variables? Provide rationale.
Exercise 23
1. A researcher surveyed two groups of professionals, nirse practitioners, and physicians,
and asked them whether or not they supported expanding the role of nurse
practitioners prescribing privileges, answered as wither yes or no. Her research question
is: “IS there a difference between NPs and physicians on proportions of support for
expanded prescription privileges?” What is the appropriate statistic to address the
research question?
2. What statistic would be appropriate for an associational research question involving the
correlation between two non-normally distributed, skewed continuous variables?
3. A researcher is interested in the extent to which years of practice among NPs predicts
level of support for expanding prescription privileges, measured on a 10 point Likert
scale. She finds that both variables, years of practice and level of support are normally
distributed. Her research question is: “IS there a difference between NPs and physicians
on proportions of support for expanded prescription privileges?” What is the
appropriate statistic to address the research question?
4. What statistic would be appropriate for a difference research question involving the
comparison of two independent groups on a normally distributed continuous
dependent variable?
5. A Statistics professor tests her students level of knowledge at the beginning of the
semester and administers the same test at the end of the semester. She compares the
two sets of continuous scores. Her research question is: Is there a difference in statistics
knowledge form the beginning to the end of the semester? What is the appropriate
statistic to address the research question if the scores are normally distributes?
6. What is the appropriate statistic to address the research question in Question 3 if the
scores are NOT normally distributed?
7. What is the appropriate statistic to identify the association between two dichotomous
variables where the researcher is interested in identifying the odds of an outcome
occurring?
8. What statistic would be appropriate for a difference research question involving the
comparison of two independent groups on a non-normally distributed, skewed
continuous dependent variable?
9. A nurse educator is interested in the difference between traditional clinical instruction
in pediatrics and simulated pediatrics instruction in a BSN program. She randomizes
students to receiving 50 hours of either traditional clinical rotations in a pediatrics
department or 50 hours of simulated instruction in pediatrics. At the end of the 50
hours, the students are assessed for clinical competency in pediatrics using a
standardized instrument that yields a pass/fail result. Her research question is: Is there a
difference in between the traditional clinical group and the simulation group on rates of
passing the competency assessment? What is the appropriate statistic to address the
research question?
10. What statistic would be appropriate for an associational research question involving the
extent to which a set of variables predict a continuous, normally distributed dependent
variable?

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