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POL 300
Midterm Examination: Spring 2019
NAME: ______________________________________________________________
This examination is worth 105 total points. There are 50 multiple-choice questions, each is worth 1
point. There are 7 short-answer questions, each is worth 5 points. There is 1 essay question, worth 20
points. Circle the best answer to each multiple-choice question.
1. All of the following are characteristics of urban political machines EXCEPT
a. A large, stable, hierarchical organization
b. Capable of delivering the vote with mechanical regularity
c. Depends on issues and ideology for popular support
d. Depends on material incentives and political rewards
2. Political Scientists use the term “political machine” to mean
a. a permanent political organization characterized by patronage and corruption.
b. a temporary governing faction with a foundation in ideological causes like abortion or gun rights.
c. a political system characterized by good government reform efforts.
d. a legacy of systemic of inequality, dominated by racial integration.
3. Progressive proposals to replace ward elections with at-large city elections were designed to
a. Increase voter turnout, especially among immigrants
b. Break the link between neighborhoods and machine politicians
c. Decrease the advantages of wealthy candidates
d. All of the above
4. The progressive measure that gives voters the right to remove a public official from office through a
special election is called
a. Initiative
b. Referendum
c. Recall
d. Runoff
5. For many Irish immigrants, political machines were the means by which they could
a. Become involved in organized crime
b. Achieve upward mobility
c. Combat negative stereotypes
d. Impose Catholic doctrine on city dwellers
6. The President who became the most powerful symbol of progressive reform at the national level
a. Lyndon Johnson
b. William Howard Taft
c. Theodore Roosevelt
d. William McKinley
7. In 1920, women gained the right to vote with the passage of the _____ Amendment.
a. 18th
b. 17th
c. 21st
d. 19th
8. During Richard J. Daley’s term as Mayor of Chicago he benefited from all of the following EXCEPT
a. Patronage workers
b. Federal money
c. A rubber stamp city council
d. Progressive reforms, like at-large elections
9. Chicago’s Hull House, a settlement house designed to aid immigrants, women, and children was
started by
a. Alice Paul
b. Margaret Sanger
c. Carrie Chapman-Catt
d. Jane Addams
10. Tammany Hall was
a. Boston’s most important concert hall
b. One of the largest vaudeville houses in Philadelphia
c. The Democratic political machine that controlled New York City politics
d. The largest settlement house in New York City
11. What was the goal of urban planners and architects like Burnham and Olmstead?
a. To rebuild American cities with stronger materials so that a catastrophe like the 1906 San
Francisco earthquake and fire would never be repeated.
b. To reroute the flow of the railroads directly through the heart of the city, so that urban dwellers
could see and appreciate the symbols of economic progress.
c. To eliminate slums by building low-income housing on previously unused lakefront property.
d. To rebuild the urban landscape with grand boulevards, town squares, monumental buildings,
and extensive recreational facilities, and thereby restore the public’s pride in metropolitan
12. What is meant by a “rubber-stamp” City Council
a. A municipal legislative branch that has rubber stamps on all desks
b. A municipal legislative branch where the overall voting trends are supportive of the mayor
c. A municipal legislative branch where the overall voting trends are in opposition to the mayor
d. None of the above
13. Chicago has a strong mayor form of city government.
a. True
b. False
14. To whom was Richard Daley most loyal according to Royko?
a. Athletes, celebrities, the wealthy and oil sheiks.
b. Family, neighbors, old buddies, the corner grocer.
c. Croney’s, lobbyists, politicians and presidents.
d. College professors, businessmen, and police officers.
15. He was Chicago’s first mayor
a. William B. Ogden
b. Carter Harrison, Sr.
c. Richard J. Daley
d. Anton Cermak
16. The major shift from rural to urban living in Europe and United States began with
a. The Industrial Revolution
b. Colonization
a. The Revolutionary War
b. The U.S. Civil War
17. In Tammany Hall and the Democracy, Richard Croker defends machine politics by comparing it to
a. A Military Battalion
b. A Social Service Agency
c. A Police Department
d. A Federation of States
18. What did Richard J. Daley provide to labor unions to maintain their support?
a. Free trucks and materials
b. Office space in City Hall
c. Top wages and lots of jobs
d. Limited jobs as a result of the Shakman Decrees
19. What was the profession of Mike Royko, author of “Boss: Richard J. Daley of Chicago”?
a. Author and newspaper columnist with three Chicago newspapers.
b. Author and city official in Chicago.
c. First baseman for the Chicago Cubs.
d. Author and television commentator with several Chicago television stations.
20. Many Progressive reformers believed that the urban poor were morally and civically deficient.
a. True
b. False
21. In the early 20th century, muckrakers were able to influence American society mainly through their
a. Frequent acts of civil disobedience
b. Activities within the machines of local government
c. Publication of articles and books
d. Control over factories
22. How were patronage jobs issued in Chicago under Richard J. Daley?
a. They were bid upon by qualified candidates.
b. Applications were taken and candidates went through a stringent interview process.
c. They were distributed to ward committeemen who delivered the highest voter turnout.
d. The mayor gave them to the precinct where he had the most enemies.
23. Who was the president that Richard J. Daley supposedly helped to elect?
a. Lyndon B. Johnson
b. Harry S. Truman
c. John F. Kennedy
d. Adalai Stevenson
24. Which of the following provided “Americanization” programs for new immigrants?
a. Congress
b. Settlement houses
c. Ghettoes
d. Trade unions
25. Patronage
a. Refers to the giving of public jobs on the basis of party loyalty and favors done
b. Greatly decreased the power of political machines
c. Was a key requirement for Civil Service reforms
d. Refers to the partisan ballots used in ward elections
26. City governments between 1870 and 1900 often came under the control of political “machines”
a. Political “machines” provided urban dwellers in rapidly growing cities with services that previous
city governments weren’t effectively providing.
b. Upper class Americans were concerned about the treatment of new immigrants by existing city
c. Federal officials took control of chaotic municipal governments.
d. There was so much political corruption that new methods were needed to reintroduce honesty
in government.
27. One source of Boss Tweed’s power was
a. His ability to give people jobs
b. The public’s disregard for improving city government
c. The support of newspapers and magazines
d. His reputation for personal honesty
28. An important political aim of the Progressive Movement was to
a. Guarantee government jobs for the unemployed
b. Stimulate democratic reforms in voting such as the initiative and the referendum
c. Create a unicameral national legislature
d. Increase the participation of African Americans in the political process
29. A political party organization that recruits its members with economic benefits, like jobs and is
characterized by a high degree of control over member activity, is called a
a. Mob
b. Machine
c. Patron
d. Boss
30. In a Council-Manager form of government, the council hires a full-time:
a. City Supervisor
b. City Mayor
c. President of the Council
d. City Manager
31. Photo journalists like Jacob Riis (How the Other Half Lives), contributed to reform movements in
the United States by
a. Exposing poverty and corruption
b. Opposing westward expansion
c. Supporting racial injustice
d. Opposing organized labor
32. Machine politics got it start in Chicago after
a. The Columbian Exposition
b. The Chicago Fire
c. Prohibition and rise of Al Capone
d. The election of Richard J. Daley
33. A local election process under which officeholders are elected by voters in the entire city would be
called a(n)
a. Partisan election
b. At-large election
c. Single-member district election
d. Non-partisan election
34. Progressives introduced electoral reforms that attempted to make government more responsive to
the people. Those reforms included all of the following EXCEPT
a. Recall
b. Initiative and Referendum
c. Non-partisan elections
d. Ward elections
35. Chicago has how many Aldermanic Wards?
a. 20
b. 30
c. 50
d. Chicago implemented at-large elections during the Progressive Era, so it does not have wards.
36. During the early 1900s, the word tenement had come to symbolize a/an
a. Airless, congested urban slum dwelling
b. Suburban area
c. Form of gentrification
d. All of the above
37. The City Beautiful Movement
a. Was launched by the Columbia Exposition
b. Began during the Revolutionary War
c. Started in Miami, FL
d. Opposed the efforts of Progressives to improve city life
38. What was Richard Daley’s family/ethnic background?
a. German farm stock
b. Polish laborer
c. British gentry
d. Irish Catholic
39. Despite the conventional wisdom that political machines were hopelessly inefficient, Mayor Daley’s
reliable provision of services and apparent ability to balance the city’s financial books led Chicago to be
known as
a. The White City
b. The City of Big Shoulders
c. The City That Works
d. The City That Stinks
40. One effect of industrialization in the United States in the late 19th century was
a. A decrease in child labor
b. An increase in demand for handicraft goods
c. A decrease in immigration to the United States
d. An increase in urbanization
41. He was a cartoonist who exposed the problems of machine politics in New York City.
a. Ira Tarbell
b. Jacob Riis
c. Thomas Nast
d. Lewis Hine
42. Which political organization controlled New York politics from the early days of the United States
until its demise?
a. The Pendergast Political Machine
b. The Early Drug Syndicates
c. The Tammany Hall Machine
d. The Al Capone Gang
43. He was a photographer who exposed the problems of the poor and city slums in New York City.
a. Ira Tarbell
b. Jacob Riis
c. Thomas Nast
d. Lewis Hine
44. This author wrote the novel The Jungle, which exposed the unsanitary conditions of the
meatpacking industry in Chicago.
a. Jane Adams
b. Thomas Nast
c. Upton Sinclair
d. Richard Croker
45. A political machine is a party organization that recruits members by
a. Offering tangible economic incentives
b. Appealing to ideology
c. Promoting good citizenship and government
d. Exposing inequalities in urban environments
46. Many suburbs and medium-sized cities are run by city managers. City managers are
a. Elected by the people of a community.
b. Often very well-educated, with many holding a Master’s degree in Public Administration.
c. Usually a close friend or political supporter of the mayor.
d. Appointed to take the place of the mayor or elected council when it comes time to make the
hard decisions on what laws to pass.
47. A unique feature of a strong mayor government is that the mayor
a. Appoints city officials like the Treasurer and Clerk.
b. Can assemble and implement a city budget without the approval of the city council.
c. Shares power with a group of department heads, who run the city.
d. Can be reelected by the city council rather than the voters if its members feel he has done a
good job.
48. In their discussion of the fragmented metropolis, authors Judd and Swanstrom argue that
a. Central cities and suburbs compete with one another across many dimensions
b. The racial and ethnic composition of metropolitan areas has become less diverse
c. Local communities can be preserved despite a lack of economic vitality
d. Highly paid professionals working in the global economy drive down the price of downtown real
SHORT ANSWER: Each answer is worth 5 points. Answer 4 of the following 8 questions. Circle the
questions you are answering. DO NOT ANSWER MORE THAN 7 QUESTIONS!
1. Identify and briefly discuss the driving factors of urbanization in the United States.
2. Identify and briefly discuss the forces that brought political machines to power in many large cities
during the 19th century. Why were machines a blessing and a curse?
3. What role did immigrants play in political machines? Did the machines help immigrants assimilate
and provide upward mobility?
4. Briefly outline the history of machine politics in Chicago.
5. What are the main differences between a weak mayor and strong mayor form of government?
6. Explain how and why ward elections are more likely to result in legislative body that is more
representative (race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status) than at-large elections.
7. Richard J. Daley was very powerful. Where did his power come from?
8. Why did Milton Rakove believe political machines would continue to persist in big cities? Was he
right or wrong?

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