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AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND WATER, INVESTMENT AS A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT1) IN ECONOMIC ASPECT2) SOCIAL ASPECT3)IN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSPECT
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AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND WATER, INVESTMENT AS A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
1) IN ECONOMIC ASPECT
2) SOCIAL ASPECT
3)IN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSPECT
Hanna Lakkala & Jarmo Vehmas (editors)
TRENDS AND FUTURE OF SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
Proceedings of the Conference
“Trends and Future of Sustainable Development”
9-10 June 2011, Tampere, Finland
FFRC eBOOK 15/2011
Editors
Hanna Lakkala
M.Sc., Project Coordinator/Researcher
Finland Futures Research Centre, University of Turku
hanna.k.lakkala@utu.fi
Jarmo Vehmas
Ph.D., Regional Manager
Finland Futures Research Centre, University of Turku
jarmo.vehmas@utu.fi
Copyright © 2011 Authors & Finland Futures Research Centre, University of Turku
Revisited 10th October 2013
ISBN
978-952-249-131-2
ISSN
1797-1322
Finland Futures Research Centre
University of Turku
ElectroCity, Tykistökatu 4 B, FI-20014 University of Turku
Korkeavuorenkatu 25 A 2, FI-00130 Helsinki
Yliopistonkatu 58 D, FI-33100 Tampere
Tel. +358 2 333 9530
Fax +358 2 333 8686
utu.fi/ffrc
tutu-info@utu.fi, firstname.lastname@utu.fi
2
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1. SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS …………………………………………………………….. 8
Grouping and ranking the EU-27 countries by their sustainability performance measured by
the Eurostat sustainability indicators ………………………………………………………………………… 9
Francesca Allievi, Jyrki Luukkanen, Juha Panula-Ontto and Jarmo Vehmas
“Walking in other’s shoes” − experiences of using the DECOIN tools to characterise sustainability
trade-offs in Scotland and the Cairngorms National Park …………………………………………………..21
K.B. Matthews, K.L. Blackstock, K. Buchan, D.G. Miller and M. Rivington
Sustainability criteria and indicators − a tool for strategic urban planning ……………………………….31
Tarja Söderman, Leena Kopperoinen, Sanna-Riikka Saarela, Vesa Yli-Pelkonen,
Adriaan Perrels, Juhana Rautiainen and Mirka Härkönen
Biorefinery Implementation in Marginal Land − A focus on the multifunctional use of
regional agriculture. …………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
Sandra Fahd, Gabriella Fiorentino, Salvatore Mellino, Maddalena Ripa and Sergio Ulgiati
Supporting sustainable development: Using the SMILE toolkit with stakeholders in Scotland ……………55
K.L. Blackstock, K.M. Matthews, K. Buchan, D. Miller, L. Dinnie and M. Rivington
Multi-Scale Integrated Analysis for Sustainable Policies: Romanian Socioeconomic Metabolism …………67
Raluca I. Iorgulescu, Lucian-Liviu Albu and Cristian Stanica
Trends of Finnish MFA and Future Prospects ……………………………………………………………….. 77
Jukka Hoffrén
Trends and Driving Factors in Finnish Forest Sector ……………………………………………………….. 86
Jukka Hoffrén
2. SUSTAINABILITY IN NORTH-SOUTH PERSPECTIVES …………………………………….. 95
“Just Begin” A Case Study in Creating Experimental Spaces in a Time of Transition …………………….96
Barbara Heinzen
Powering the Future of the Least Developed Countries: World Bank’s Role in Developing
Renewable Energy in Laos …………………………………………………………………………………. 108
Hanna Kaisti and Mira Käkönen
Developing Tibet into a Special Sustainability Zone of China? …………………………………………… 126
Tarja Ketola
Copenhagen failure and North-South dynamics …………………………………………………………… 138
Teea Kortetmäki
The Role of Legislation and Policies in Promoting Ecological Sanitation: Case Zambia ………………… 147
Mia O’Neill
Global governance of water security in agro-food value chains and networks …………………………. 159
Suvi Sojamo
3. SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION ………………………………………………………….. 172
How to revise the concepts of economy ………………………………………………………………….. 173
Pekka Mäkelä
3
Towards sustainable society − transforming materialist consumerism ………………………………….. 185
Arto O. Salonen and Mauri Åhlberg
Maximum and minimum consumption − two-dimensional approach in defining a decent
lifestyle ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
Michael Lettenmeier, Satu Lähteenoja, Tuuli Hirvilammi, Kristiina Aalto and Senja Laakso
4. SUSTAINABILITY AND THE SOCIETY……………………………………………………. 213
A conceptual framework for life cycle thinking in transitions toward sustainable waste
management ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 214
David Lazarevic, Nicolas Buclet and Nils Brandt
Land use for bioenergy production − assessing the production potentials and the assumptions
of EU bioenergy policy ……………………………………………………………………………………… 230
Francesca Allievi and Jenny Turunen
5. SUSTAINABLE CULTURE………………………………………………………………… 239
Drivers and Barriers to Sustainable Development: A Historical-Futures Perspective (Case Study) …….. 240
Marcus Bussey, R.W.(Bill) Carter, Jennifer Carter, Robert Mangoyana, Julie Matthews,
Denzil Nash, Jeannette Oliver, Russell Richards, Anne Roiko, Marcello Sano, Tim Smith,
Dana Thomsen and Estelle Weber
Measuring Environmental Sustainability among Universities ……………………………………………… 253
Maryam Faghihimani
Designing Sustainability Together − Disciplinary competences in transdisciplinary
knowledge building …………………………………………………………………………………………. 263
Tatu Marttila
6. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY ……………………………………………………………….. 273
Innovative fiscal policy in the context of sustainability ………………………………………………….. 274
Olivér Kovács
Impact of fiscal policies changes on the budgetary revenues and sustainable economic growth ……… 287
Cristian Nicolae Stanica
Analysing drivers of and barriers to the sustainable development: hidden economy and
hidden migration ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 295
Lucian-Liviu Albu, Raluca Iorgulescu and Cristian Stanica
Future Trends of Genuine Welfare in Finland …………………………………………………………….. 305
Jukka Hoffrén
7. CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY ………………………………………………………….. 314
Integrating Sustainability into Strategy and Innovation A foresight-inspired systematic approach
for businesses ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 315
Bernhard Albert
Disruptive Innovations at the Bottom of the Pyramid Can they impact on the sustainability
of today’s companies? ………………………………………………………………………………………. 325
Abayomi Baiyere and Jaspar Roos
Implementation of Total responsibility Management into Corporate Strategy ………………………….. 337
Štefka Gorenak and Vito Bobek
Stakeholders and Corporate Social Responsibility in Corporate Responsibility Disclosure ……………… 349
Marileena Koskela
4
Global dispute on sustainable business: Analysing MNE-stakeholder relationships
in local media texts ………………………………………………………………………………………… 359
Hanna Lehtimäki, Johanna Kujala and Anna Heikkinen
Purpose of Sustainability Contractual Clauses ……………………………………………………………. 371
Kateřina Peterková
Disclosure of material CSR information − comparison of the mandatory CSR disclosure systems
for listed companies in the EU and the US ………………………………………………………………… 385
Dániel Gergely Szabó
8. FUTURES METHODS ……………………………………………………………………. 400
Need and usefulness for future foresight − Environmental scanning of the rescue services
in Finland: trend analysis and future scenarios 2025+ ……………………………………………………. 401
Esko Kaukonen
The significance of wild cards and weak signals for sustainability – case of water services …………… 410
Ossi A. Heino and Annina J. Takala
9. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ……………………………………………………… 423
Delphi on Transport and CO2 Emissions − Finnish Scenarios up to 2050 …………………………………. 424
Vilja Varho, Petri Tapio and Laura Joki
Analysing the sustainability of road freight transport − combining multiple sources of information …. 436
Markus Pöllänen and Heikki Liimatainen
Affecting the sustainability innovation acceptance through systematic mapping and
re-employing of actors, the case of a renewable energy project ……………………………………….. 447
Anastasia Tsvetkova, Magnus Gustafsson and Krys Markowski
Small step towards sustainable transport? Media debate over Finnish car tax reform….……………………458
Nina A. Nygrén, Jari Lyytimäki and Petri Tapio
10. SUSTAINABLE ENERGY………………………………………………………………… 468
CO2 economy in the BRIC countries Decomposition analysis of Brazil, Russia, India and China ……….. 469
Jyrki Luukkanen, Juha Panula-Ontto, Jarmo Vehmas, Jari Kaivo-oja, Francesca Allievi,
Tytti Pasanen, Petri Tapio and Burkhard Auffermann
Microalgae as a biofuel feedstock: risks and challenges …………………………………………………. 488
Liandong Zhu and Tarja Ketola
11. SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN …………………………………………………………… 499
Designing sustainable innovations …………………………………………………………………………. 500
K. Christoph Keller
Sustainability Awareness in Design − Bridging the gap between design research and practice ……….. 514
Outi Ugas and Cindy Kohtala
Sustainability and industrial design in Finland: barriers and future prospects …………………………. 526
Pekka Murto
12. ADDITIONAL PAPERS
Governance and Institutions for Sustainable Agricultural and Rural Development in Bosnia &
Herzegovina……………………………………………………………………………………………… 538
Sinisa Berjan, Matteo Vittuari and Hamid El Bilali
5
INTRODUCTION
Finland Futures Research Centre’s 13th international conference Trends and Future of Sustainable
Development was held in Tampere, Finland in June 9–10, 2011. Sustainable development is a topic that
has gained importance in local, regional and global scales and requires multidisciplinary and crosssectorial cooperation and sharing of ideas and viewpoints. Environmentally, socially, economically and
culturally sustainable development can only be achieved by encouraging knowledge sharing and
cooperation between various sectors and decision makers.
Finland Futures Research Centre promotes futures oriented research and thinking. Futures studies
include tools for describing possible, probable and desirable variations of the present and drafting
possible images of the future. By exploring the variety of different possibilities, we can come closer to
shaping the future – rather than predicting it. Thus, futures studies can offer valuable tools for the
search of sustainable development paths.
The conference brought together 168 participants from 16 different countries. Four keynote speeches
representing both academia and private sector were invited:

Prof. Alan Warde (University of Manchester): “Social Sciences and Sustainable Consumption”

Executive Vice President of Corporate Relations and Sustainability Anne Brunila (Fortum
Corporations): “Tomorrows Sustainable Energy Solutions and Urban Living”

Prof. Peter Nijkamp (Free University Amsterdam): “Sustainability Challenges to Idyllic
Landscapes”

Prof. Richard Aspinall (Macaulay Land Use Research Institute): “Accounting for HumanEnvironmental Relationships: Beyond Ecosystem Assessment”
In addition, 32 parallel sessions with the following themes were held. Each theme has its own chapter in
this publication.
6

Sustainability Indicators

Sustainability in North-South Perspectives

Sustainable Consumption

Sustainability and the Society

Sustainable Culture

Sustainable Economy

Corporate Responsibility

Futures Methods

Sustainable Transportation

Sustainable Energy

Sustainability in Design
In addition, an expert panel chaired by Prof. Markku Wilenius discussed “Measurement and
indicators of sustainable development”. The panelists included Prof. Em. Pentti Malaska (Finland
Futures Research Centre), Mr. Oras Tynkkynen (Finnish Parliament), Prof. Sergio Ulgiati (Parthenope
University of Naples) and Prof. Mario Giampietro (Autonomous University of Barcelona).
Hanna Lakkala & Jarmo Vehmas
7
1.
8
SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS
GROUPING AND RANKING THE EU-27 COUNTRIES BY
THEIR SUSTAINABILITY PERFORMANCE MEASURED
BY THE EUROSTAT SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS
Francesca Allievi, Jyrki Luukkanen, Juha Panula-Ontto and Jarmo Vehmas
Finland Futures Research Centre
University of Turku
ABSTRACT – This paper presents the results of a sustainability indicator study on the EU-27
countries where the countries are grouped by hierarchical cluster analysis on the basis of their
performance measured with the used sustainability indicators. The used sustainability indicators can
themselves be grouped into social, environmental and economic indicator groups, reflecting the
different “aspects” of sustainability. In the study, indicators in the three groups have also been
calculated into aggregate indicators and the EU-27 countries can be compared and ranked according
to their performance measured by these aggregate indicators.
1. Introduction to the EU-27 case study
This case study was developed within the FP7 project SMILE (Synergies in Multi-scale Inter-Linkages of
Eco-social systems, more information available at: http://www.smile-fp7.eu/ ) and was one of the case
studies designed to assess the sustainability in the EU context from the economic, environmental and
social point of view. Specifically this case study was carried out as part of task 3.7, which requested a
study where EU27 countries are grouped in terms of their sustainability performance, assessed by using
a set of sustainability indicators. These will be described in detail later on. The grouping of the countries
considered is carried out by applying hierarchical cluster analysis to the selected indicators.
Sustainability performance is evaluated also through the calculation of aggregate indicators for the
different dimensions of sustainability, so that it is possible to rank the countries in terms of their
performance.
The aim of this paper is therefore to present both the methodology used and the results of this
cluster analysis and of the aggregate indicators created.
9
2. Material and methods
2.1. The Eurostat sustainability indicator data set
The Eurostat Sustainable Development Indicators (SDIs) are used to monitor the EU sustainable
Development Strategy (EU SDS). This set is constituted by more than 100 indicators divided into subthemes, such as Demographic changes, Climate change and energy, Sustainable transport and Social
inclusion (Eurostat, 2011).
Of these 19 indicators were selected according to their relevance for each of the sustainability
dimensions considered in this study. They will be described in paragraphs 2.4.1, 2.4.2 and 2.4.3.
2.2. Cluster analysis as a method of grouping EU-27 countries
Cluster analysis is used in many disciplines for different purposes, but with the same aim of creating
groups; cluster analysis is an umbrella-term for different algorithms that generate groups of statistical
cases whose members are similar to other members of the same group on the basis of a certain criteria.
The basic data needed as input for the cluster analysis is thus a matrix X containing the variable values
for each of the objects under investigation, which in the present work correspond to the EU27 countries,
that is
 x11

 x 21
X =
:

x
 n1
x12
x 22


xn 2

x1 p 

x2 p 
: 

x np 
The purpose of cluster analysis in this case is thus to group the countries, represented by the n rows
of X, according to similarities (or proximities) reported in the p columns of X, which in our case are the
values for each of the indicators considered.
Different methods are available to proceed with the analysis, but in the case of hierarchical
agglomerative clustering, which is used in this study, the classification consists of a series of partitions
of the data where the first consists of n single-members clusters, while the last is made by a single group
containing all n individuals: at each step individuals or groups of individuals which are closest are fused
together (Everitt, 1993).
As the indicators included in this analysis were of various natures, the cluster analysis was executed
on the normalized distance matrices of the indicators. Thus, before proceeding with the cluster analysis
the distance matrix of each indicator had to be calculated and the distances normalized.
However, since the indicators were of different measurement scales (years, percentages, kgoe, etc.),
they could be put in the same matrix only after they had been normalized. To compute the distances of
each indicator, the city block distance was used. This distance measure represents the distance between
points in a city road grid and examines the absolute differences between the coordinates of a pair of
10
n
objects, i.e. countries. The city block distance is calculated as:
dij = ∑ xik − x jk
k =1
. The entries of the
obtained distance matrix were then normalized by dividing them by the maximum value of the distance
matrix.
2.3. Scoring and ranking
The countries analyzed in this study were scored according to their sustainability performance measured
with the selected indicators. For each indicator a weight and a ranking logic were selected. The weight
measures the relative importance of the indicator in respect to the other indicators in the same
dimension, and it also determines the maximum scoring points available from that indicator, i.e. the
points given to the best performing country measured by the indicator. The ranking logic determines if
the smallest or greatest value of the indicator is seen as the best performance: normal ranking logic
implies a higher score for a greater value, while reversed ranking logic implies a higher score for a
smaller value.
For each indicator, the best performing country was given the number of points equal to the weight
of the indicator, while the worst performing country was given a score of zero; the other countries
received a linearly scaled score according to their relative performance in respect to the best performing
country.
The normalized total score indicates the country’s performance measured by the selection of
sustainability indicators in comparison to the overall best performing country in the EU-27 group. This
analysis does not give a picture of the development of performance over time …
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