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Tensile Properties of Vinyl, Vinylidene, and Engineered Polymers
Due Date: 11:00 pm on May 1, 2019
Lab Objectives Understand how the density and degree of polymerization of the vinyl type polymer
influence the mechanical properties of the ethylene monomer. Gain knowledge in the effect of
crystallinity on the mechanical properties. Understand how substitution of functional groups for
hydrogen on the polyethylene molecule affects the mechanical properties.
Materials and Equipment 1 Standard ASTM D638 tensile test coupons each of low density polyethylene
(LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), Polypropylene, Polyester, Nylon 6/6, Polycarbonate,
Polymethyl Methacrylate, Polyvinyl Chloride, Polytetrafluoroethylene, and Polystyrene. 10,000 lb.
hydraulic tensile testing machine 6” calipers
Safety Note Wear safety glasses at all times when using the laboratory equipment, including tensile
testing machine.
Procedure 1. Use a permanent marker to identify, on the ends, each test bar for permanent
identification throughout the project. 2. Using the calipers, measure every 1/8” along the test section of
the coupon to determine the smallest width. In addition, measure the thickness of the test coupon.
Record the measurement and enter the information into the tensile testing software when prompted. 3.
Load one of the test bars into the tensile testing machine and lower the crosshead down until the test
coupon is secured in the grips. Verify the test bar is vertical and the bar fits snuggly into the test
fixtures. 4. Follow the instructions and prompts on the computer screen to apply a load to the tensile
test coupon. Make sure the program is rest for the gauge length and balance load.
5. After the tensile specimen breaks, follow the instruction on the screen to generate a report for the
specimen. 6. Repeat the entire procedure for the other two test specimens.
Requirements for Laboratory Report The laboratory report will consist of Abstract (250 words or less)
Introduction discussing the theoretical aspect of density and molecular weight of the ethylene
polymer and how it impacts the mechanical behavior of the polymer. Discuss the chemical structure for
each type of polyethylene and how the structure affects the mechanical properties. The introduction
should also provide a discussion on the concept of crystallinity and how the degree of crystallization
influences the mechanical properties. Minimum four paragraph introduction discussing the theoretical
aspect of adding other functional groups onto the ethylene monomer and how they can alter the
mechanical behavior of the polymer. In addition, provide a discussion on the influence of the vinyl and
vinylidene functional groups in promoting crystallinity. Include a table illustrating the influence of
crystallinity, glass transition temperature, ductility, and tensile strength from literature data.
Presentation of data including tables and charts. Compare to properties given at
https://www.mcmaster.com/catalog/125/3726 Discussion of findings Summary or conclusion (250
words or less) For the Results and Discussion portion of the report, the following information must be
included 1. Tabulate and effectively graph Tensile strength Modulus of elasticity Percent
elongation Include in your report the following review and discussion topics. These are discussion
suggestions to assist you in writing your report. Do not write answers directly to the question but
address the proposed technical issues in your report. During tensile loading, how will the length of
chain affect the mechanical properties? Which material exhibits the best stiffness? Justify your
answer. Which material exhibited the best specific strength? Is there an influence of the position and
size of the functional group on the ethylene monomer on mechanical properties? How does the
functional group affect linear chain growth? Is there a correlation to chain growth and mechanical
properties?
Time sec
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.058
Extension inLoad lbf
0 -0.29097
0.002239 6.501234
0.004934 33.47974
0.007483 66.65566
0.00999 99.05354
0.012498 130.6554
0.014998 162.2922
0.017498 193.3511
0.02 223.947
0.022495 254.0909
0.024995 283.8325
0.0275 313.2215
0.029998 342.0233
0.032498 370.4974
0.034998 398.4891
0.037498 426.2738
0.039995 453.5643
0.042498 480.5126
0.044998 506.9671
0.047498 533.216
0.049998 559.0559
0.0525 584.6361
0.054998 609.706
0.057498 634.4258
0.06 658.8138
0.062498 682.7683
0.064998 706.1632
0.067498 729.2753
0.069998 751.1744
0.072498 772.5261
0.075 793.5409
0.077498 814.2426
0.079995 834.6966
0.0825 854.839
0.084998 874.5968
0.087498 893.919
0.089995 912.9604
0.092502 931.7968
0.094998 950.1005
0.097498 968.0829
0.099998 985.6172
0.101462 903.2687
Tensile stress
Cycle
ksi CountTotal Cycle Count
Repetitions Tensile
Count extension
Tensileinstrain %
-0.00233
0
0
0
0
0
0.05201
0
0
0 0.002239 0.099519
0.267838
0
0
0 0.004934 0.219269
0.533245
0
0
0 0.007483 0.332568
0.792428
0
0
0 0.00999 0.444007
1.045243
0
0
0 0.012498 0.555446
1.298337
0
0
0 0.014998 0.666557
1.546809
0
0
0 0.017498 0.777668
1.791576
0
0
0
0.02 0.888889
2.032727
0
0
0 0.022495 0.999781
2.27066
0
0
0 0.024995 1.110892
2.505772
0
0
0
0.0275 1.222222
2.736186
0
0
0 0.029998 1.333224
2.963979
0
0
0 0.032498 1.444335
3.187913
0
0
0 0.034998 1.555446
3.41019
0
0
0 0.037498 1.666557
3.628515
0
0
0 0.039995 1.777559
3.844101
0
0
0 0.042498 1.888779
4.055737
0
0
0 0.044998 1.99989
4.265728
0
0
0 0.047498 2.111002
4.472447
0
0
0 0.049998 2.222113
4.677089
0
0
0
0.0525 2.333333
4.877648
0
0
0 0.054998 2.444335
5.075406
0
0
0 0.057498 2.555446
5.27051
0
0
0
0.06 2.666666
5.462146
0
0
0 0.062498 2.777668
5.649306
0
0
0 0.064998 2.888779
5.834202
0
0
0 0.067498 2.99989
6.009395
0
0
0 0.069998 3.111001
6.180209
0
0
0 0.072498 3.222112
6.348327
0
0
0
0.075 3.333333
6.513941
0
0
0 0.077498 3.444334
6.677573
0
0
0 0.079995 3.555336
6.838712
0
0
0
0.0825 3.666666
6.996774
0
0
0 0.084998 3.777668
7.151352
0
0
0 0.087498 3.888779
7.303683
0
0
0 0.089995 3.999781
7.454375
0
0
0 0.092502 4.11122
7.600804
0
0
0 0.094998 4.222112
7.744664
0
0
0 0.097498 4.333223
7.884938
0
0
0 0.099998 4.444334
7.22615
0
0
0 0.101462 4.509405
True strain %
Corrected Position
Tenacityingf/tex
True stress psi
0
0 -1.31984
-2.3278
0.099469 0.002239 29.48911 52.06163
0.219029 0.004934 151.8615 268.4252
0.332016 0.007483 302.345 535.0187
0.443024 0.00999 449.2994 795.9468
0.553909 0.012498 592.6428 1051.049
0.664346 0.014998 736.1449 1306.991
0.77466 0.017498 877.0258 1558.838
0.884961
0.02 1015.807 1807.501
0.994816 0.022495 1152.537 2053.05
1.104767 0.024995 1287.443 2295.885
1.214813
0.0275 1420.749 2536.398
1.324415 0.029998 1551.392 2772.666
1.434004 0.032498 1680.548 3006.789
1.543473 0.034998 1807.516 3237.499
1.652822 0.037498 1933.545 3467.023
1.761945 0.039995 2057.333 3693.014
1.871163 0.042498 2179.569 3916.708
1.980155 0.044998 2299.564 4136.847
2.089029 0.047498 2418.627 4355.777
2.197783 0.049998 2535.835 4571.83
2.306527
0.0525 2651.865 4786.221
2.414939 0.054998 2765.58 4996.874
2.52334 0.057498 2877.707 5205.105
2.631731
0.06 2988.329 5411.057
2.739791 0.062498 3096.985 5613.867
2.847841 0.064998 3203.103 5812.502
2.955774 0.067498 3307.937 6009.222
3.063591 0.069998 3407.27 6196.348
3.171291 0.072498 3504.12 6379.342
3.278982
0.075 3599.441 6559.938
3.386345 0.077498 3693.343 6738.303
3.493593 0.079995 3786.121 6914.983
3.601043
0.0825 3877.485 7089.465
3.708061 0.084998 3967.105 7261.089
3.815071 0.087498 4054.749 7429.452
3.92186 0.089995 4141.119 7595.814
4.028957 0.092502 4226.56 7760.84
4.135413 0.094998 4309.584 7921.719
4.241966 0.097498 4391.151 8080.257
4.348406 0.099998 4470.685 8235.371
4.410688 0.101462 4097.158 7552.006
Time sec
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
Extension inLoad lbf
0 0.356211
0.002247 7.24659
0.004931 23.98256
0.007485 40.11704
0.009993 54.89336
0.012498 68.43478
0.015 81.54944
0.0175 93.92624
0.019998 105.791
0.0225 117.2078
0.024998 128.0872
0.0275 138.3248
0.029998 148.3815
0.032498 157.9385
0.034998 167.0309
0.0375 175.7659
0.039998 183.866
0.0425 192.0804
0.045 199.9132
0.0475 207.3505
0.05 214.5234
0.0525 221.1584
0.054998 227.9662
0.0575 234.2927
0.06 240.2815
0.062498 246.1954
0.064998 251.7095
0.067495 257.3074
0.070005 262.6575
0.0725 267.7665
0.074993 272.7486
0.077498 277.4895
0.080002 282.2514
0.082502 286.8145
0.084995 290.9645
0.087502 295.2676
0.090002 299.306
0.092502 303.3786
0.094998 307.3164
0.097495 311.206
0.100007 314.9754
0.1025 318.3386
0.105 321.9235
0.107493 325.2667
0.110007 328.4505
0.112502 331.6561
Tensile stress
Cycle
ksi CountTotal Cycle Count
Repetitions Tensile
Count extension
Tensileinstrain %
0.00285
0
0
0
0
0
0.057973
0
0
0 0.002247 0.099847
0.191861
0
0
0 0.004931 0.21916
0.320936
0
0
0 0.007485 0.332677
0.439147
0
0
0 0.009993 0.444116
0.547478
0
0
0 0.012498 0.555446
0.652396
0
0
0
0.015 0.666667
0.75141
0
0
0
0.0175 0.777778
0.846328
0
0
0 0.019998 0.888779
0.937663
0
0
0
0.0225
1
1.024697
0
0
0 0.024998 1.111002
1.106599
0
0
0
0.0275 1.222222
1.187052
0
0
0 0.029998 1.333224
1.263508
0
0
0 0.032498 1.444335
1.336247
0
0
0 0.034998 1.555446
1.406127
0
0
0
0.0375 1.666666
1.470928
0
0
0 0.039998 1.777668
1.536643
0
0
0
0.0425 1.888889
1.599306
0
0
0
0.045
2
1.658804
0
0
0
0.0475 2.111111
1.716187
0
0
0
0.05 2.222222
1.769267
0
0
0
0.0525 2.333333
1.823729
0
0
0 0.054998 2.444335
1.874341
0
0
0
0.0575 2.555555
1.922252
0
0
0
0.06 2.666666
1.969563
0
0
0 0.062498 2.777668
2.013676
0
0
0 0.064998 2.888779
2.058459
0
0
0 0.067495 2.999781
2.10126
0
0
0 0.070005 3.111329
2.142132
0
0
0
0.0725 3.222222
2.181989
0
0
0 0.074993 3.333005
2.219916
0
0
0 0.077498 3.444334
2.258012
0
0
0 0.080002 3.555664
2.294516
0
0
0 0.082502 3.666776
2.327716
0
0
0 0.084995 3.777559
2.362141
0
0
0 0.087502 3.888998
2.394448
0
0
0 0.090002 4.000109
2.427028
0
0
0 0.092502 4.11122
2.458531
0
0
0 0.094998 4.222112
2.489648
0
0
0 0.097495 4.333114
2.519803
0
0
0 0.100007 4.444772
2.546709
0
0
0
0.1025 4.555555
2.575388
0
0
0
0.105 4.666666
2.602134
0
0
0 0.107493 4.777449
2.627604
0
0
0 0.110007 4.889216
2.653249
0
0
0 0.112502 5.000109
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9
9.1
9.2
0.115
0.117498
0.120002
0.122502
0.125
0.127493
0.13
0.132502
0.135002
0.13749
0.14
0.142502
0.145
0.147493
0.149998
0.152505
0.155002
0.157495
0.159998
0.162505
0.165002
0.167498
0.17
0.172502
0.175
0.177502
0.18
0.182502
0.185002
0.187502
0.189998
0.1925
0.195005
0.197502
0.199993
0.2025
0.205005
0.207502
0.209998
0.212498
0.215005
0.217502
0.219998
0.2225
0.225005
0.227502
0.230002
334.6513
337.7512
340.8285
343.7557
346.5713
349.1154
351.9182
354.5073
356.8436
359.2245
361.5032
363.9713
366.2475
368.473
370.572
372.6159
374.6793
376.507
378.3511
380.2219
381.9729
383.7046
385.5482
387.1026
388.7009
390.1656
391.7413
393.277
394.5954
395.8807
397.0764
398.4725
399.6803
401.0929
402.1724
403.2423
404.5348
405.5747
406.4187
407.3863
408.2708
409.2759
410.1744
411.0969
412.0508
412.7513
413.7084
2.677211
2.702009
2.726628
2.750045
2.77257
2.792923
2.815346
2.836058
2.854749
2.873796
2.892025
2.91177
2.92998
2.947784
2.964576
2.980927
2.997435
3.012056
3.026809
3.041775
3.055783
3.069637
3.084385
3.096821
3.109607
3.121325
3.133931
3.146216
3.156763
3.167045
3.176611
3.18778
3.197443
3.208743
3.217379
3.225938
3.236279
3.244598
3.25135
3.25909
3.266166
3.274207
3.281395
3.288775
3.296406
3.302011
3.309667
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.115
0.117498
0.120002
0.122502
0.125
0.127493
0.13
0.132502
0.135002
0.13749
0.14
0.142502
0.145
0.147493
0.149998
0.152505
0.155002
0.157495
0.159998
0.162505
0.165002
0.167498
0.17
0.172502
0.175
0.177502
0.18
0.182502
0.185002
0.187502
0.189998
0.1925
0.195005
0.197502
0.199993
0.2025
0.205005
0.207502
0.209998
0.212498
0.215005
0.217502
0.219998
0.2225
0.225005
0.227502
0.230002
5.11111
5.222112
5.333442
5.444553
5.555555
5.666338
5.777777
5.888997
6.000109
6.110673
6.222221
6.333442
6.444444
6.555227
6.666557
6.777995
6.888997
6.99978
7.111001
7.22244
7.333442
7.444334
7.555555
7.666774
7.777776
7.888997
7.999999
8.111219
8.22233
8.333442
8.444334
8.555554
8.666883
8.777885
8.888559
8.999999
9.111328
9.22233
9.333222
9.444333
9.555773
9.666775
9.777667
9.888887
10.00022
10.11122
10.22233
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
11
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
12
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
13
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
0.232498
0.235002
0.2375
0.24
0.242498
0.245002
0.247502
0.25
0.252498
0.255
0.257502
0.260002
0.262495
0.265
0.2675
0.270002
0.2725
0.275002
0.2775
0.28
0.282498
0.284998
0.2875
0.29
0.292498
0.295
0.2975
0.3
0.302498
0.305
0.3075
0.31
0.312498
0.314998
0.3175
0.320002
0.322502
0.325
0.327502
0.330005
0.3325
0.334998
0.3375
0.339998
0.3425
0.345
0.347502
414.4314
414.9943
415.7657
416.2362
416.9921
417.6626
418.2807
418.9445
419.3399
419.966
420.5663
420.9401
421.36
421.6691
422.2982
422.663
423.1702
423.5824
423.851
424.212
424.492
424.816
425.0329
425.2294
425.5907
425.7925
426.1081
426.3492
426.4822
426.7042
426.8919
426.9743
427.0689
427.2091
427.3167
427.4353
427.6086
427.7106
427.735
427.8812
427.9337
427.8243
427.8786
427.9681
427.9284
427.8798
427.9865
3.315451
3.319954
3.326126
3.32989
3.335936
3.341301
3.346246
3.351556
3.354719
3.359728
3.36453
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3.378385
3.381304
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3.388659
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3.398528
3.400263
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3.423029
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3.423427
3.423038
3.423892
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14.11111
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14.44444
14.55566
14.66688
14.77778
14.88878
15
15.111
15.22222
15.33333
15.44455
14
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
15
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
15.8
15.9
16
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
16.9
17
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8
17.9
18
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6
0.350002
0.352502
0.355
0.3575
0.36
0.3625
0.365002
0.367502
0.369998
0.3725
0.375
0.377502
0.379998
0.3825
0.385002
0.3875
0.389998
0.3925
0.395002
0.397502
0.4
0.4025
0.405
0.4075
0.409998
0.4125
0.414998
0.4175
0.419998
0.4225
0.425
0.4275
0.43
0.4325
0.435
0.4375
0.439995
0.442498
0.445
0.447502
0.449998
0.452498
0.455
0.4575
0.459998
0.462497
0.465
427.9842
428.0537
427.9649
427.8973
427.7037
427.6489
427.6053
427.3984
427.4546
427.4217
427.4074
427.2494
427.1253
427.0057
426.6592
426.5583
426.5255
426.2326
426.1276
426.0407
425.877
425.7398
425.5105
425.2953
424.9594
424.76
424.4828
424.4111
424.0316
423.991
423.8775
423.5658
423.3069
423.0514
422.6579
422.4618
422.2086
421.8522
421.5805
421.408
421.2042
420.9507
420.5878
420.3031
419.8455
419.5429
419.3699
3.423873
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3.39102
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3.386456
3.384411
3.381263
3.379694
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3.374818
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15.55566
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16
16.11111
16.22233
16.33344
16.44433
16.55555
16.66666
16.77789
16.88878
17
17.11122
17.22222
17.33322
17.44444
17.55566
17.66677
17.77777
17.88889
18
18.11111
18.22211
18.33333
18.44433
18.55555
18.66655
18.77778
18.88889
19
19.11111
19.22222
19.33333
19.44444
19.55533
19.66655
19.77777
19.88899
19.99989
20.111
20.22222
20.33333
20.44433
20.55544
20.66666
18.7
18.8
18.9
19
19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.5
19.6
19.7
19.8
19.9
20
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7
20.8
20.9
21
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.5
21.6
21.7
21.8
21.9
22
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
22.7
22.8
22.9
23
23.1
23.2
23.3
0.4675
0.47
0.472502
0.474997
0.4775
0.48
0.482498
0.485
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0.5
0.5025
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0.5425
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0.56
0.5625
0.564995
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0.57
0.572502
0.574998
0.577498
0.580002
0.5825
418.9577
418.614
418.4746
418.1629
417.8828
417.4626
417.1083
416.6585
416.4397
416.0608
415.6974
415.3384
415.0953
414.7696
414.4359
414.0794
413.654
413.1613
412.8264
412.5469
412.0751
411.767
411.4665
411.0607
410.7249
410.2936
409.8735
409.3382
409.0235
408.6679
408.1945
407.8768
407.4895
407.0714
406.6773
406.2941
405.8741
405.2553
404.9751
404.4877
404.0705
403.52
403.2395
402.9033
402.5175
401.9327
401.4777
3.351661
3.348912
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3.345304
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3.328487
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21.55555
21.66666
21.77777
21.889
22.00011
22.11111
22.22 …
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