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The Power Chart by Paul Kivel
Upper Class
Formally Educated
Born in U.S.
Children, Seniors
Intersex, Transgender, Women,
Middle Class, Lower Class
Differently Abled
Non-formally educated
Agnostic, Atheist, Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim
Paper Description
Please write a 3- to 5- page reflection paper based on Kivel’s (2002) Power Chart detailed above.
From the chart, please assess yourself using two categories (e.g., one category could be More
Powerful = White, Less Powerful = Non-white). Specifically, you will choose one category
where you are more powerful and the second where you are less powerful. Please detail specific
examples of each and how these personal characteristics put you at an advantaged or
disadvantaged status in accessing rights and/or opportunities. Please also describe how these
characteristics could influence your social relationships personally and professionally in your
engagement with recipients of social work services. Last, please explain how you might
minimize the impact of your chosen “More Powerful” position of power and privilege. You
should incorporate at least five (5) course concepts and/or theories (e.g., power, privilege,
oppression, cultural hegemony).
All papers must be typed, double-spaced with 1” margins on all sides, use Times New Roman or
Arial font with size 12 and color Black, and be in further compliance with APA style guidelines
(6th edition). Please include a title page and running header. Grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc.
will be considered in the grading process. Please remember to format any citations according to
the conventions denoted in the APA Style manual (6th ed.).
Papers will be scored on a 20 points system:
Identification and example of More Powerful position – 2
Identification and example of Less Powerful position- 2
Relating positions to social relationships – 3
Relating positions to professional relationships – 3
Incorporation of course concepts – 5
APA Style – 2
Writing (e.g., spelling, grammar, punctuation) – 3
Total Points = 20
Joyce Fordjour
Class SKW114001
Social Welf Hist & Instit
Homelessness is “the situation of an individual, family, or community without stable, safe,
permanent, appropriate housing, or the immediate prospect means and the ability to acquire it”.
( Homelessness when a person does not have a place to stay which
are influenced by so many factors such as loss of employment, financial hardship and abuse and
many others. In a city of 8.5million people, nearly 1 in every 128 New Yorkers is currently
homeless. But only 1 out of every 17 of these individuals is visible to the eye. Every night more
than 63,000 people sleep in the New York City municipal shelter system- up 43% from 10 years
ago. Nearly 4,000 more sleep on the street, in the subway system or in other public spaces. (
Most of these people are spending the night in homeless shelter, short-term transitional
housing, and congregate shelters. Slightly more than a third are living in cars, under bridge or in
some other ways living unsheltered. Nearly one quarter of these people are children under the
age of 18. One in every thirty children go to sleep without a home each year based on the
calculation from the U.S Department and the 2013 U.S census (America’s Youngest Outcast: A
Report Card on Child Homelessness ( From the most recent data released from the U.S.
Census, no special attention has been directed towards homeless children, although progress has
been made in reducing homelessness among veterans and chronically homeless individuals
(America’s Youngest Outcast: A Report Card on Child Homelessness (
The are various forms of homelessness ,such as “literally homeless, imminent risk of
homelessness, homeless under other Federal statutes, and fleeing/ attempting to flee domestic
violence” (Homelessness Assistance ( The number of people that could experience
homeless could be twice as high but with the assistance of the U.S. Housing and Urban
Development (HUD) over 1million people are served through emergency, transitional, and
permanent housing programs each year (Homelessness Assistance (
There are three different types of homelessness, they are Chronic, Transitional, and Episodic
Homelessness. Chronic is referred to those who are homeless for a longer amount of time,
usually older or injured people. This is the least common type of homelessness. Transitional are
people who stay at the shelter for only a short period of time due to a catastrophic event, usually
younger people, who are forced to go a homeless shelter for a short time. This is the most
common type of homelessness. Episodic are those who are frequently going in and out of
homelessness, usually younger and due to abuse, unemployment, and experience mental illness
or medical problems. ( The Transitional and
Episodic Homelessness has a large population of younger people compared to chronic
In 1987, Congress enacted the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (P.L. 100- 77),
which created a number of new programs to comprehensively address the needs of homeless
people, including food, shelter, health care, and education. The act was later renamed the
McKinney – Vento Homeless Assistance Act (P.L 106-400) after it’s two prominent proponents
Representatives Stewart B. McKinney and Bruce F. Vento.(Peter H. Rossi, Down and Out in
America: The Origins of Homelessness (Chicago : The University of Chicago Press,1989),
pp.20-21,27-28). The most prominent policy first enacted was the McKinney – Vento Homeless
The Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Act was first enacted in 1987 in responses to the
homelessness crisis that had emerged in the 1980s. In 2000, the act was renamed the McKinneyVento Homeless Assistance Act.( National Alliance to End Homelessness, ).The U.S. historical context of the
McKinney – Vento Homeless assistance is that in the early 1980s, the initial response to
widespread and increasing homelessness were primarily local. Homelessness was viewed by the
Reagan Administration as a problem that did not require federal intervention. In 1981 the
advocates around the country that the Federal government acknowledge homelessness as a
national problem requiring a national response. After an intensive advocacy campaign, large
bipartisan majorities in both houses of congress passed the legislation in 1987. After the death of
its chief Republican sponsor, Representative Stewart B. McKinney of Connecticut, the act was
renamed the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act. A reluctant president Ronald
Regan Signed it into law on July 22,1987. On October 30,2000 President William Clinton
renamed the legislation the McKinney- Vento Homeless Assistance Act after the death of
Representative Bruce Vento, a leading supporter of the act since its original passage in 1987.(
McKinney- Vento Act, National Coalition for the Homeless, ).
Marriage and the nuclear family is a great value of social welfare policy that addresses
homelessness, when there is two source of income in a household it makes the house much more
stable, it takes the load of one parent having to pay rent or family needs all by themselves which
help prevent the family from being homeless. Also having protestant work ethic help eliminates
homelessness because when a person is committed to working hard and aim to achieve success
he or she becomes more responsible and capable of maintaining a home, even when their income
is not enough, due to them working they may be eligible for public assistance to help them
maintain the home.
Housing and support services (HSS) is one of the programs in place to help address
homelessness in the state of New York. This policy was put in place to help and support
homeless families and individuals who are at risk of being homeless or homeless. This policy is
still in effect and its major provision is to help and support homeless families and individuals and
also provide them with affordable housing. (
The Stewart B Makinney Homeless Assistance Act was put in place to address homelessness by
providing food, shelter, health care and many others to prevent homelessness where HSS was put
in place to directly help and support families and individuals.
The Bowery Mission ( Homelessness is a shared experienced in New York City)
The types of homelessness
McKinney- Vento Act, National Coalition for the Homeless.
National Alliance to End Homelessness.


Peter H. Rossi, Down and Out in American. The origins of Homelessness
Chicago: The university of Chicago Press, 1989. Pp.20-21,27-28
Congressional Research service.
Supporting Communities to prevent and end homelessness

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