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Assignment 2: Whitepaper on Food SecurityDue Week 7 and worth 110 pointsThe members of the United Nations found great value in the whitepaper you provided on population growth. They are now asking you to expand the whitepaper to include global food security as it relates to population growth and poverty. Read the overview and provide an assessment based on the questions below.I.Overview We can define global food security as the effort to build food systems that can feed everyone, everywhere, and every day by improving its quality and promoting nutritional agriculture (1). That said, there are certain practices that can advance this project:Identifying the underlying causes of hunger and malnutritionInvesting in country-specific recovery plansStrengthening strategic coordination with institutions like the UN and the World BankEncouraging developed countries to make sustained financial commitments to its successWe must bear in mind that more than 3 billion people—nearly one-half of the world’s population—subsist on as little as $2.50 a day, with nearly 1.5 billion living in extreme poverty on less than $1.25 a day. According to the World Health Organization, the United Nations, and other relief agencies, about 20,000 people (mostly children) starve to death in the world every day, for a total of about 7 million people a year. In addition, about 750 million (twice the population of the United States) do not have access to clean drinking water, meaning that some one million people die every year from diarrhea caused by water-borne diseases.The earth’s population has grown since it reached 7 billion in 2010. It is expected to reach 8 billion in 2025, 9 billion in 2040, and 11 billion by the end of the 21st century (2). If the demand for food is predicted to rise 50% by 2030 and 70% by 2050, the real problem is not necessarily growing enough food, but rather making that amount available to people. Moreover, food illnesses are prevalent, with nearly 600 million reported cases of foodborne diseases each year. These mainly affect children but can also negatively impact the livelihood of farmers, vendors, trade associations, and ultimately, can reduce the Gross Domestic Product (national income) of a country. These issues can impose tremendous human, economic, social, and fiscal costs on countries, so addressing them allows governments to devote more resources to making desperately needed infrastructure improvements that raise the quality of life for everyone.It is not enough to have adequate supplies of food available. Policies that focus exclusively on food production can exacerbate the problem, particularly if, to satisfy the need for quantity, the quality of the food is left wanting.Reasons for Food InsecurityCertainly, poverty and the contributing systemic internal conditions are the driving factors behind keeping adequate food resources from reaching people, but it is only one of several. Others are discussed next.Inadequate Food Distribution: The reality is that there is more than enough food in the world to feed its people, but the primary cause of famine is not poor weather conditions as much as it is getting the food to the people who need it most. Quite often, disruptions in food distribution result from political instability and poor infrastructure (such as poorly functioning port facilities, lack of transportation options, and inadequate road networks). Paradoxically, although the world’s population is increasing, the amount of potential food available will increase along with it, due mostly to advances in bio-agricultural engineering and seed immunity to molds. Writing in the late 18th century, Thomas Malthus warned that the global population would exceed the earth’s capacity to grow food, in that while the population would grow exponentially, food production would grow only arithmetically. Although this theory was proved invalid, its propagation has unfortunately resulted in some governments rationalizing political choices that avoid helping the poverty-ridden and starving.Political-Agricultural Practices: The widespread use of microbiological, chemical, and other forms of pesticides in food continues to be a serious issue throughout the global food chain. Widespread use of fertilizers also causes illness in millions of people every year, not only from the food itself, but from run-off into streams and rivers, contaminating entire water supplies. The human, social, fiscal, and economic costs of such practices impede improvements not only in the raising of crops, but in their distribution. Added to this, the rising demand in developed countries for biofuels, refined mostly from corn and soybean, reduces the amount of arable land devoted to producing food.The failure of many farmers in the developing world to rotate their crops harms the replenishing of nutrients necessary to continue growing crops. In addition, neglecting to allow land to remain fallow exhausts the soil, making it much more difficult to raise a decent amount of food per acre the following growing season. Economic Issues: The fact is, government policies that focus on growing cash crops, for example, are designed solely to export them to earn foreign exchange. This may be fine for the government in its effort to earn money, but the result is that farmers end up growing for foreign markets and not domestic ones, leading to shortages of necessary staples. Consequently, the poorest of the population are frozen out of the local markets because they cannot afford the food that remains to be sold (3).Civil Strife: Civil war can interrupt the flow of food from gathering depots, such as ports, to distribution centers where it can be handed out to people. During the 1990s, Somalia was particularly hard hit by their civil war, as clans fought for control of the main port at Mogadishu, which affected the flow of food to the rest of the population. In this case, as with many civil wars, whoever controls the supply of food controls the country. In failed and failing states like Zimbabwe, Congo, Haiti, South Sudan, Yemen, and Libya, food is very often another weapon used by one segment of the population against another.Sources:1.Peter Timmer. 2015. Food Security and Scarcity: Why Ending Hunger Is So Hard. Foreign Affairs magazine.2.The United Nations Population Division. 2017. World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. 3.Will Martin. November 2010. Food Security and Poverty: A Precarious Balance. Let’s Talk Development blog by The World Bank. issue is not the lack of food in the world, but the access to food. In many developing countries, the food shortage is due to governmental control over food. These governments maintain control and preference by limiting access of nutritious food to certain groups, thereby weaponizing food.In this second assignment, research the impact of poverty on global food security and the potential technological solutions. Write a minimum of four pages (not including the cover letter) assessing the impact of food insecurity. Select one country from the United Nations list of developing countries to use as an example throughout your assessment. The completed version of this assignment will include the following items:Cover page: Include your name, title of course, name of the developing country you have chosen from the UN list, current date, and the name of your instructor.Introduction: Introduce the topic of the whitepaper (half-page minimum).One- Two page (minimum) answers to each of the following questions (for a total of three pages)1. What is food insecurity, and what role does population growth play in it?2. What specific factors interrupt the flow of food from the source to the people in the developing country you selected?3. What forms of technology can be used to reduce hunger and improve food security? Explain how these technological solutions would work.Note: Give examples in your responses to each of the above questions as it relates to the developing country you have chosen.Conclusion: A one-half page (minimum) conclusion.Cite at least five credible sources excluding Wikipedia, dictionaries, and encyclopedias for your assessment. A brief list of suggested resources has been provided at the end of the course guide.This course requires use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different compared to other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details. (Note: You’ll be prompted to enter your Blackboard login credentials to view these standards.)The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Propose a plan to address the issue of global food security in underdeveloped countries that considers the impact of prior solutions.Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic/organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric:

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Impact of the Population Growth
Lisa C Donovan
SOC 450
Country: Botswana
Dr. John R. Cronin
April 27, 2019
Impact of the Population Growth
Biodiversity can be referred to as the range of different species that are present in the
ecosystem’s community. The ecosystem’s biodiversity can be affected by natural hazards,
human activities, and the growth in population. Like the nature of all living organisms, human
beings exploit their surroundings for resources. Industrialization has been the human progress
hallmark. However, industrialization has resulted in a mass of toxic gases that are being
deposited into the atmosphere every minute. Also, industries deposit lots of liquid waste into the
rivers, oceans and seas.
Besides increasing air pollution, the countless vehicles constant on the roads add to noise
pollution that has resulted in an increase in problems relating to hearing, anxiety, and stress.
Increasing population, industrialization, and the requirement of land for expanding cities
development has caused mankind to cut down trees in the forests selfishly. The trees main
purpose is assisting with preventing global warming because they use carbon (IV) oxide during
the osmosis process. Apart from the emission of toxic gases into the atmosphere, an increase in
population results in the extinction of species. Even after mankind learned how to cultivate the
land, they continued to kill animals. The relentless hunting for the tusks of the elephant, hide of
the cheetah, or to cook shark fin soup, in just one century has caused a large number of species to
be wiped out.
Greenhouse Gases and Their Contribution to Global Warming
Most scientists that study the climate agree that the main cause of the global warming is
the expansion of humanity’s greenhouse effect; warming that is caused by tripling the heat
radiating toward space from earth (Cook et al., 2016). There are certain gases in the atmosphere
that prevent the heat from escaping. There are long-lived gases that maintain semi-permanently
in the atmosphere and do not respond chemically or physically to temperature variations and are
defined as ‘forcing’ the change in the climate. There are gases such as water vapor, which
respond chemically or physically to temperatures changes and are perceived as feedbacks. In the
United States, fossil fuels’ burning to generate electricity is the source of pollution that traps
heat, generating CO2 at an estimate of two billion tons (Cook et al., 2016). The burning Gases
that contribute to the greenhouse effects as such is:

Water vapor: Water vapor is the most profuse greenhouse gas, but mainly performs as
climates’ feedback (Cook et al., 2016). The water vapor increases as the atmosphere of the
earth warms, but also the possibility of precipitation and clouds, making these among the
essential greenhouse effect’s feedback mechanism.

Carbon dioxide (CO2). A minor but a vital atmospheric component, carbon dioxide is
released through human activities such as burning fossil fuels, land use changes,
deforestation, and through natural processes such as volcano eruptions and respiration
(Saunois et al., 2016). Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the CO2 in the
atmosphere has increased by more than a third. Carbon dioxide is one of the long-lived
climate changes “forcing.”

Methane. A hydrocarbon gas generated through both human activities and natural sources,
including wastes’ decomposition in rice cultivation, agriculture, and landfills, as well as
manure management and ruminant digestion associated the livestock at the homestead
(Saunois et al., 2016). On the basis of molecule-for-molecule, methane is more active
greenhouse gas than CO2, but also it is less abundant in the atmosphere.

Nitrous oxide. A toxic greenhouse gas generated by the practices of the soil cultivation,
especially the utilization of organic and commercial fertilizers, biomass burning, nitric acid
production, and fossil fuel burning.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Synthetic elements of industrial origin entirely utilized in a
number of applications, but currently, it is largely regulated during generation and released to
the atmosphere by universal agreement for their capability to contribute to the ozone layer’s
destruction (Saunois et al., 2016). Also, they are referred to as greenhouse gases.
The atmosphere permits the radiation of short wavelength from the sun to reach and warm
the surface of the earth but longer wavelength radiation is blocked which would cool the earth
(Cook et al., 2016). The occurrence of global warming is when the greenhouse gases such as
nitrous oxide in the atmosphere collect and absorb solar radiation and sunlight that has bounced
from the surface of the earth (Cook et al., 2016). Normally, radiation is supposed to escape into
space, but the pollutants which can be in the atmosphere for years trap the heat and results in the
planet to get warmer.
Effect of These Emissions Pose to the People of the Developing World
The economic effect these emissions pose to the people of Botswana includes impacting
food growth (Garnett, 2011). Currently, developing states cannot sustain themselves or even
grow with heavy dependence on fossil fuels. Typically, global warming takes a seat to
employment, housing, and feeding the citizens of Botswana. Fossil fuels remain the most
available energy source that can be relied on and also the cheapest. When Botswana wants to
create an economic system that is functional, they depend on fossil fuels (Garnett, 2011).
Botswana wants to transition to energy that is renewable as there is growth in its economy, but
the required investment required to achieve the objective of renewable energy is equivalent to
over ten times the spending of the country annually on education and health.
The consequences and impact of global warming for agriculture tend to be severe for
nations which had higher temperatures initially, lower levels of development, and greater
exposure of climate change (Dow & Downing, 2016). Higher temperature impact on food
security can be summarized as the farmers and animal’s health, reduction of water supply and
enhanced pests increase the risk of land degradation and growing aridity, and the plants being
affected by higher temperature. Patterns of precipitation that are modified will increase the
scarcity of water and associated drought stress for altering irrigation and crops water supplies
(Dow & Downing, 2016). Famers’ predictability planning is also reduced by greenhouse gas
emissions. Despite the prevailing uncertainties, the temperature zones of Europe, Asia, and North
America have a potential increase in agricultural production. However, countries such as
Botswana which is exposed to climate change, agricultural production could decrease.
Nations are a step closer to a greenhouse gas emissions’ agreement generated by
worldwide food systems. Land use, forestry, and agriculture change are accountable for a quarter
of the emissions globally but it has been struggling for a consensus agreement on how the sector
contributes to global warming (Garnett, 2011). Taking a lead, the developing nations have
prepared a strategy of breaking the divided approach to addressing the problem to agriculture and
climate change. Nations that are industrialized have long demanded that for the effort of
reducing emissions, agriculture be evaluated properly while developing nations such as
Botswana where agriculture is a main economic activity, the agriculturalists have reasoned that
the focus should be on climate change adaptation (Garnett, 2011).
The greenhouse gases emission is proportional to the economy and population of a
country. A nation that is populous with the economy that is modest can generate more
greenhouse gases than a small populated wealthy country (Dow & Downing, 2016). Therefore,
the greenhouse gases largest emitters are the countries with the largest populations and wealthy
industrialized. The largest emitters are Oceania and Asia because of their location to the largest
emitters (India, Japan, and China) (Dow & Downing, 2016). Western Europe and North America
follow because they are wealthy regions and highly industrialized. The nations that account for
seventy percent of the global emission include Russia, Middle East, East Europe, South America,
and some part of Africa such as Nigeria.
Global Level Population Growth Control
The recommendation for controlling population growth includes providing both sexes
global access to effective and safe contraceptives. Counting five pregnancies, two have been
reported as never wanted or mistimed (Gifford, 2019). Lack of access to adequate services of
family planning is among the shortcomings in assuming that babies are planned for in advance
and will be wanted. Secondary school education, especially for girls, that is guaranteed to assist
to reduce population growth (Gifford, 2019). On average, women who have at least completed
secondary school have fewer children, and it is later in life that they have children than women
with less education.
Another technique that Botswana can utilize is eradicating gender bias from culture,
health, economic opportunity, and law (Gifford, 2019). Women who can inherit, own, divorce,
and participate political and civic affairs, and manage the property on equal terms with men are
likely to postpone the bearing of children and would have fewer kids compared to ladies that do
not have these rights. Also, all children should be offered sexuality education that is ageappropriate can and will be helpful (Gifford, 2019). Research indicates that the exposure to
programs that are comprehensive and include in detail intercourse, puberty, birth control, options
of abstinence, and respecting the decisions and sexual rights of individuals can assist in
preventing pregnancies that are not wanted and therefore birth rate reduction.
Also, there is the integration of lessons on development, environment, and population at
multiple levels to school curricula while refraining from propaganda or advocacy. The students
should be educated to make decisions that are well-informed about the effect of their behavior,
including the bearing of children on the environment (Gifford, 2019). Another method that can
be applied globally is to stop all the policies that reward parents monetarily based on how many
children they possess. Governments can increase or preserve tax and other benefits financially
aimed at assisting parents by connecting the benefits not to how many children but the status of
parenthood itself.
Prices can be put on environmental impacts and costs. In quantifying the price of an
additional member of the family by calculating increased food costs and taxes, couples may
conclude that it is a higher cost to have an additional child (Gifford, 2019). Such choices that are
freely made by couples and women can reduce the rate of birth without any non-parents’
involvement in reproduction. Additionally, convincing leaders to commit to population
stabilization through human rights and development is another technique (Gifford, 2019). By
educating themselves on population policies that are rights-based, the policymakers can
effectively and ethically address challenges related to the population by empowering women to
make their own decisions on reproduction.
Like the nature of all living organisms, human beings exploit their surroundings for
resources. The industrialization has been the human progress hallmark. However,
industrialization has resulted in a mass of toxic gases that are being deposited into the
atmosphere every minute. Most scientists of the climate agree that the main cause of global
warming is the expansion of humanity’s greenhouse effect; warming that is caused by tripling the
heat radiating toward space from earth. The burning Gases that contribute to the greenhouse
effects as such as water vapor, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and
The atmosphere permits the radiation of short wavelengths from the sun to reach and
warm the surface of the earth but longer wavelength radiation is blocked which would cool the
earth. Normally, radiation is supposed to escape into space, but the pollutants which can be in the
atmosphere for years trap the heat and results in the planet to get warmer. Secondary school
education, especially for girls, that is guaranteed to assist to reduce population growth. On
average, women who have at least completed secondary school have fewer children, and it is
later in life that they have children than women with less education.
Cook, J., Oreskes, N., Doran, P. T., Anderegg, W. R., Verheggen, B., Maibach, E. W., … &
Nuccitelli, D. (2016). Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on
human-caused global warming. Environmental Research Letters, 11(4), 048002.
Saunois, M., Jackson, R. B., Bousquet, P., Poulter, B., & Canadell, J. G. (2016). The growing
role of methane in anthropogenic climate change. Environ. Res. Lett, 11(12), 12.
Dow, K., & Downing, T. E. (2016). The atlas of climate change: mapping the world’s greatest
challenge. Univ of California Press.
Garnett, T. (2011). Where are the best opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in
the food system (including the food chain)?. Food policy, 36, S23-S32.
Gifford, D. (2019). How to Stop Population Growth—Humanely. Retrieved from

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