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Assignment: Descriptive Statistics
Visit one of the following newspapers’ websites: USA Today, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, or Washington Post. Select an article that uses statistical data related to a current event, your major, your current field, or your future career goal. The chosen article must have a publication date during this quarter.The article should use one of the following categories of descriptive statistics: Measures of Frequency – Counting Rules, Percent, Frequency, Frequency DistributionsMeasures of Central Tendency – Mean, Median, ModeMeasures of Dispersion or Variation – Range, Variance, Standard DeviationMeasures of Position – Percentile, QuartilesWrite a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:Write a summary of the article.Explain how the article uses descriptive statistics. Explain how the article applies to the real world, your major, your current job, or your future career goal.Analyze the reasons why the article chose to use the various types of data shared in the article.Format your paper according to the Strayer Writing Standards. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.Thoroughly wrote a summary of the article. Thoroughly explained how the article uses descriptive statistics.Thoroughly explained how the article applies to the real world, your major, your current job, or your future career goal.Thoroughly analyzed the reasons why the article chose to use the various types of data shared in the article.There are no mechanical, grammar spelling, punctuation, or stylistic errors.
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Strayer University Writing Standards
Fall 2018
Communicating professionally and ethically is one of the
essential skills we can teach you at Strayer. The following
guidelines will ensure you:
· write professionally;
· avoid plagiarizing others, which is essential to writing ethically; and
· give credit to others in your work.
Visit Strayer’s Academic Integrity Center for more information.
Strayer University Writing Standards
1
Table of Contents
General Standards
3
Use Appropriate Formatting
3
Title Your Work
3
Write Clearly
3
Cite Credible Sources
3
Build a Source List
3
Giving Credit to Authors and Sources
4
Option #1: Paraphrasing
4
Option #2: Quoting
4
Using Web Sources
5
Using Home Pages
5
Using Specific Web Pages
5
Source List
6
Setting Up the Source List Page
6
Creating a Source List Entry
6
Source List Elements
7
Source List Elements Breakdown
7
Sample Source List
8
Writing Assignments
9
Paper and Essay Specific Format Guidelines
9
PowerPoint or Slideshow Specific Format Guidelines
9
Discussion Posts
10
Effective Internet Links
10
Share vs. URL Options
11
Charts, Images, and Tables
Strayer University Writing Standards
12
2
General Standards
Use Appropriate
Formatting
Include page numbers.
Use 1-inch margins.
Use Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, or Calibri font style.
Use 10-, 11-, or 12-point font size for the body of your text.
Use numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on) OR spell out numbers (one, two, three, and so
on). Be consistent with your choice throughout the assignment.
Use either single or double spacing, according to assignment guidelines.
Title Your Work
If assignment requires a title page:
·· Include the assignment title, your name, course title, your professor’s name,
and the date of submission on a separate page.
If assignment does not require a title page (stated in the assignment details):
·· Include all required content in a header at the top of your document.
·· or Include all required content where appropriate for assignment format.
· Examples of appropriate places per assignment: letterhead of a business
letter assignment or a title slide for a PowerPoint presentation
Write Clearly
Use appropriate language and be concise.
Write in active voice when possible. Find tips here.
Use the point of view (first, second, or third person) required by the
assignment guidelines.
Use spelling and grammar check and proofread to help ensure your work is
error free.
Cite Credible Sources
Use credible sources to support your ideas/work. Find tips here.
Cite your sources throughout your work when you borrow someone else’s
words or ideas. Give credit to the authors.
Look for a permalink tool for a webpage when possible (especially when an
electronic source requires logging in like the Strayer Library). Find tips here.
Add each cited source to the Source List at the end of your assignment. (See
the Giving Credit to Authors and Sources section for more details.)
Don’t forget to cite and add your textbook to the Source List if you use it as a
source.
Build a Source List
Include a Source List when the assignment requires research or if you cite the
textbook.
Type “Sources” centered on the first line of the page.
List the sources that you used in your assignment.
Organize sources in a numbered list and in order of use throughout the paper.
Use the original number when citing a source multiple times.
For more information, see the Source List section.
Strayer University Writing Standards
3
Giving Credit to Authors and Sources
When quoting or paraphrasing another source, give credit by using an in-text citation.
An in-text citation includes the author’s last name and the number of the source from the
Source List. A well-researched assignment has at least as many sources as pages (see Writing
Assignments for the required number of sources). Find tips here.
Option #1: Paraphrasing
Rewording Source Information in Your Own Words
Rephrase the source information in your words. Be sure
not to repeat the same words of the author.
Add a number to the end of your source (which will tie
to your Source List).
Remember, you cannot just replace words of the original
sentence.

Examples
ORIGINAL SOURCE
“Writing at a college level requires informed
research.”
PARAPHRASING
As Harvey wrote, when writing a paper for
higher education, it is critical to research and
cite sources (1).
When writing a paper for higher education,
it is imperative to research and cite sources
(Harvey, 1).
Option #2: Quoting
Citing another person’s work word-for-word
Place quotation marks at the beginning and the end of
the quoted information.
Add a number to the end of your source (which will tie
to your Source List).
Do not quote more than one to two sentences
(approximately 25 words) at a time.
Do not start a sentence with a quotation.
Introduce and explain quotes within the context of your
paper.
Strayer University Writing Standards

Examples
ORIGINAL SOURCE
“Writing at a college level requires informed
research.”
QUOTING
Harvey wrote in his book, “Writing at a college
level requires informed research” (1).
Many authors agree, “Writing at a college
level requires informed research” (Harvey, 1).
4
Using Web Sources
A web source is any source accessed through an internet browser.
Before using any source, first determine its credibility. Then decide if the source is appropriate and relevant for your
project. Find tips here.
Using Home Pages
A home page is the main page that loads when you type a standard web address. For instance, if you type Google.com
into the web browser, you will be taken to Google’s home page.
If you do need to cite a home page, use the webpage’s title from the browser. This is found by moving your mouse cursor
over the webpage name at the top of the browser. When citing a homepage, it is likely because there is a news thread,
image, or basic piece of information about a company that you wish to include in your assignment.
Using Specific Web Pages
If you are using any web page other than the home page, include the specific title of the page and the direct link (when
possible) for that specific page in your Source List Entry.
If you used multiple pages from the same author/source, create separate Source List Entries for each page when possible
(if the title and/or web address is different).
Strayer University Writing Standards
5
Source List
The Source List (which includes the sources that you used in your assignment) is a new page
that should be added at the end of your paper. The list has two purposes; it credits the
authors you used and informs your readers how to find the source. Build your Source List as
you write.
Setting Up the
Source List Page
Type “Sources” at the top of a new page.
Include a numbered list of the sources you used in your paper (the numbers
indicate the order in which you used them).
1. Use the number one (1) for the first source used in the paper, the number
two (2) for the second source, and so on.
2. Use the same number for a source if you use it multiple times.
Creating a Source
List Entry
Ensure each source includes five parts: author or organization, publication
date, title, page number (if needed), and how to find it. If you have trouble
finding these details, then re-evaluate the credibility of your source.
Use the browser link for a public webpage.
Use a permalink for a webpage when possible. Find tips here.
Instruct your readers how to find all sources that do not have a browser link or
a permalink.
Separate each Source List Element with a period on your Source List.
Strayer University Writing Standards
6
Source List Elements
AUTHOR
PUBLICATION DATE
TITLE
PAGE NUMBER
HOW TO FIND
Michael Harvey
2013
p. 1
In the case of
multiple authors,
only list the first.
This is not the same as
copyright date, which
is denoted by ©
The Nuts &
Bolts of College
Writing
http://libdatab.strayer.edu/
login?url=http://search.ebscohost.
com/login.aspx?direct=true&db
=nlebk&AN=590706&site=edslive&scope=site


Example
Include p. and the
page(s) used.
How it Will Look in Your Source List
1. Michael Harvey. 2013. The Nuts & Bolts of College Writing. http://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=http://search.
ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=590706&site=eds-live&scope=site
Source List Elements Breakdown
AUTHOR
The person(s) who published the source. This can be a single person, a group of people, or an organization. If the source
has no author, use “No author” where you would list the author.
PUBLICATION DATE
The date the source was published. If the source has no publication date, use “No date” where you would list the date.
TITLE
The title of the source. If the source has no title, use “No title” where you would list the title.
PAGE NUMBER
The page number(s) used. If the source has no page numbers, omit this section from your Source List Entry.
HOW TO FIND
Instruct readers how to find all sources. Keep explanations simple and concise, but provide enough information so the
source can be located. NOTE: It is your responsibility to make sure the source can be found.
Strayer University Writing Standards
7

Sample Source List
1.
Michael Harvey. 2013. The Nuts & Bolts of College Writing. p.1. http://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=http://search.
ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=590706&site=eds-live&scope=site
2.
William R. Stanek. 2010. Storyboarding Techniques chapter in Effective Writing for Business, College and Life. http://
libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=359141&site=e
ds-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_23
3.
Zyad Hicham. 2017. Vocabulary Growth in College-Level Students’ Narrative Writing. http://libdatab.strayer.edu/
login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsdoj&AN=edsdoj.9b7fad40e529462bafe3a936
aaf81420&site=eds-live&scope=site
4.
Anya Kamenetz. July 10, 2015. The Writing Assignment That Changes Lives. https://www.npr.org/sections/
ed/2015/07/10/419202925/the-writing-assignment-that-changes-lives
5.
Brad Thor. June 14, 2016. The Best Writing Advice I Ever Got. http://time.com/4363050/brad-thor-best-writing-advice/
6.
Karen Hertzberg. June 15, 2017. How to Improve Writing Skills in 15 Easy Steps. https://www.grammarly.com/blog/
how-to-improve-writing-skills/
7.
Roy Peter Clark. 2008. Writing Tools: 55 Essential Strategies for Every Writer. p.55-67. Book on Amazon.com.
8.
C.M. Gill. 2014. The Psychology of Grading and Scoring chapter in Essential Writing Skills for College & Beyond.
Textbook.
9.
ABC Company’s Policy & Procedures Committee. No Date. Employee Dress and Attendance Policy. Policy in my office.
10. Henry M. Sayre. 2014. The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change, Vol. 1. This is the HUM111 textbook.
11. Savannah Student. 2018. Image. http://www.studentsite.com
12. Don Dollarsign. 2018. Chart. http://www.allaboutthemoney.com
13. Company Newsletter Name. 2018. Table. Company Newsletter Printed Copy (provided upon request).
Strayer University Writing Standards
8
Writing Assignments
Strayer University uses several different types of writing assignments. The Strayer University
Student Writing Standards are designed to allow flexibility in formatting your assignment and
crediting your sources. This section covers specific areas to help you properly format and
develop your assignments. NOTE: The specific format guidelines override guidelines in the
General Standards section.
Paper and Essay Specific
Format Guidelines
Use double spacing throughout the body of your assignment.
Use a consistent 12-point font throughout your assignment submission. (For
acceptable fonts, see General Standards section.)
Use the point of view (first or third person) required by the assignment
guidelines.
Section headings can be used to divide different content areas. Align section
headings (centered) on the page, be consistent, and include at least two
section headings in the assignment.
Follow all other General Standards section guidelines.
PowerPoint or Slideshow
Specific Format
Guidelines
Title slides should include the project name (title your work to capture
attention if possible), a subtitle (if needed), the course title, and your name.
Use spacing that improves professional style (mixing single and double
spacing as needed).
Use a background color or image on slides.
Use Calibri, Lucida Console, Helvetica, Futura, Myriad Pro, or Gill Sans font
styles.
Use 28-32 point font size for the body of your slides (based on your chosen
font style). Avoid font sizes smaller than 24-point.
Use 36-44 point font size for the titles of your slides (based on chosen font
style).
Limit content per slide (no more than 7 lines on any slide and no more than 7
words per line).
Include slide numbers when your slide show has 3+ slides. Place the numbers
wherever you like (but be consistent).
Include appropriate images that connect directly to slide content or
presentation content.
Follow additional guidelines from the PowerPoint or Slideshow Specific
Format Guidelines section and assignment guidelines.
Strayer University Writing Standards
9
Discussion Posts
When quoting or paraphrasing a source for discussion threads, include the source number in
parenthesis after the body text where you quote or paraphrase. At the end of your post, include
a list of any sources that you cited. For more information on building a Source List Entry, see
Source List section.

Sample Post
The work is the important part of any writing assignment. According to Smith, “writing things down is the biggest
challenge” (1). This is significant because…
SOURCE
1. William Smith. 2018. “The Way Things Are”. http://www.samplesite.com/writing
If you pulled information from more than one source, continue to number the additional sources in the order that they appear
in your post.

Sample Post
The work is the important part of any writing assignment. According to Smith, “writing things down is the biggest
challenge” (1). This is significant because…
The other side of this is also important. It is noted that “actually writing isn’t important as much as putting ideas
somewhere useful” (2).
SOURCE
1. William Smith. 2018. The Way Things Are. http://www.samplesite.com/writing
2. Patricia Smith. 2018. The Way Things Really Are. http://www.betterthansample.com/tiger
Effective Internet Links
When sharing a link to an article with your instructor and classmates, start with a brief summary and why you chose to share it.
For example:

Poor Example
Hey check out this article: http://www.Jobs4You.FED/Jobs_u_can_get

Better Example
After reading the textbook this week, I researched job sites. I found an article on how to find the best job site depending
on the job you’re looking for. The author shared some interesting tools such as job sites that collect job postings from
other sites and ranks them from newest to oldest, depending on category. Check out the article at this link: http://www.
Jobs4You.FED/Jobs_u_can_get
Be sure to check the link you’re posting to be sure it will work for your classmates. They should be able to simply click on
the link and go directly to your shared site.
Strayer University Writing Standards
10
Share vs. URL Options
Cutting and pasting the URL (web address) from your browser may not allow others to view your source. This makes it hard
for people to connect to the content you used.
To avoid this problem, look for a “share” option and choose that when possible so your classmates and professor get the
full, direct link. Always test your link(s) before submitting to make sure they work.
If you cannot properly share the link, include the article as an attachment. Interested classmates and your professor can
reference the article shared as an attachment. Find tips here.
Strayer University Writing Standards
11
Charts, Images, and Tables
Charts, images, and tables should be centered and followed by an in-text citation. Design
your page and place a citation below the chart, image, or table. When referring to the chart,
image, or table in the body of the assignment, use the citation.
On your Source List, provide the
following details of the visual:
Author’s name (if created by you, provide your name)
Date (if created by you, provide the year)
Type (Chart, Image, or Table)
How to find it (link or other information – See Source List section for
additional details).
Strayer University Writing Standards
12

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