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Bd.# 2 Week 21. This week I would like you to read the case of Meera Krishnan in chapter 4 and discuss it from each of the following theoretical perspectives presented in Chapter 4. Include your own opinion as to which perspective best describes Meera’s problem. a. Pscyhodynamic Perspective b. Humanistic Perspective c. Behavioral and Cognitive Perspective d. Biological Perspective2. Watch the video Everything is a Disorder. Post your evaluation and comments on this video.Everything is a disorder., Mental health manual is “dangerous”3. Take one of the self tests in the Take A Psych. Test (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Did it feel accurate? How? Describe the evaluation of the diagnosis of mental disorders based on Psychological testing. What are some of the problems?—Check attached files
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Chapter 4: Theoretical Perspectives
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Theoretical perspectives in abnormal psychology
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Orientation to understanding:
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Causes of human behavior
Treatment of abnormality
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Biological perspective
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Assumed that disturbances in emotions, behavior, and
cognitive processes are caused by abnormalities in the
functioning of the body
Neurotransmitter: Chemical substance released from a
neuron into the synaptic cleft
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Drifts across the synapse and is absorbed by the receiving
neuron
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Table 1: Selected Neurotransmitters Involved in
Psychological Disorders
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Genetic influences
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Genetic abnormalities can come about through:
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Inheritance of particular combinations of genes
Faulty copying when cells reproduce
Mutations that a person acquires over the course of life
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Figure 1: Pattern of Dominant-Recessive Trait
Inheritance
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Genetic and environmental influences
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Endophenotypes
Relationships between genetic and environmental
influences
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Gene-environment correlations
Interactions between genes and the environment
Diathesis-stress model
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Figure 2: Epigenesis
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Genetics Research Methods
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Family inheritance studies
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Genome-wide linkage studies
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Researchers compare the disorder rates across relatives who
have varying degrees of genetic relatedness
Genetic method in which researchers study the families of
people with specific psychological traits or disorders.
Genome-wide association studies
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Researchers scan the entire genome of individuals who are not
related to find the associated genetic variations with a
particular disease.
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Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
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Figure 3: SNP Detection
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Treatment
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Biological treatments involve medications, surgery or
other direct treatment on the brain.
Psychotherapeutic medications
Psychosurgery
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Deep brain stimulation, also called neuromodulation
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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Table 2: Major Psychotherapeutic Medications
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Trait theory
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Personality trait
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Five Factor Model
Provides a perspective for examining personality
disorders
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Figure 5: Five Factor Model of Personality
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Psychodynamic perspective
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Of all the psychological approaches, the psychodynamic
gives greatest emphasis to the role of processes beneath
the surface of awareness as influences on abnormality.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
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Freud’s theory
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Mind has three structures:
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Id
Ego
Superego
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Freud’s theory
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In Freudian theory:
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Id contains the sexual and aggressive instincts
Ego is the center of conscious awareness
Superego is the personality’s seat of morality
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Freud’s theory
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Defense mechanisms: Tactics that keep unacceptable
thoughts, instincts, and feelings out of conscious
awareness and thus protect the ego against anxiety
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Table 3: Categories and Examples of Defense
Mechanisms
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Freud’s theory
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Psychosexual stages:
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Normal sequence of development through which each
individual passes between infancy and adulthood
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Post-Freudians and criticism
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Carl Jung (1875-1961)
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
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Post-Freudians and criticism
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Infant attachment style (Ainsworth)
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Secure
Anxious
Avoidant
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Treatment
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Main goal of traditional psychoanalytic treatment is to
bring repressed, unconscious material into conscious
awareness.
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Free association
Core conflictual relationship theme (CCRT)
Transference
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Behavioral perspective
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A theoretical perspective in which it is assumed that
abnormality is caused by faulty learning experiences
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Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Social learning and cognition
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Behavioral perspective: treatment
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Counterconditioning:
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Contingency management
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Process of replacing an undesired response to a stimulus with
an acceptable response
Systematic desensitization
Principle of rewarding a client for desired behaviors and not
providing rewards for undesired behaviors.
Token economy
Participant modeling
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Figure 7: The Relationship Among Dysfunctional Attitude,
Experience, Automatic Thought, and Negative Emotion
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Cognitive perspective: treatment
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Cognitive restructuring
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)
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Humanistic perspective
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The humanistic perspective believes that people are
motivated to strive for self-fulfillment and meaning in life.
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Person-centered theory (Rogers)
Client-centered therapy
Self-actualization theory (Maslow)
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Humanistic perspective
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Treatment
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Unconditional positive regard
Motivational interviewing (MI)
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Sociocultural perspective
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Emphasizes the ways that individuals are influenced by:
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People
Social institutions
Social forces
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Sociocultural perspective
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Social discrimination
Social influences & historical events
Treatment:
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Family therapy
Group therapy
Milieu therapy
Multicultural approach
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Family perspective
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Assumed that abnormality is caused by disturbances in
the pattern of interactions and relationships within the
family
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Biopsychosocial perspectives: an integrative
approach
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Most clinicians take an integrative approach, which
means they select aspects of various models rather than
adhering to a single one
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