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Assignment: A two-page extended abstract outlining the key arguments.My topic is: The ways in which colonialism affects present day Africa.Must be: Two pages, Double-Spaced, 12pt. font, Times New Roman.Focus of the paper: Many parts of Africa is suffering from past colonial powers. Therefore, I want to show the transitional change of how colonialism affected Africa back then compared to now. Today many parts of Africa are still trying to recover and reconstruct their country because of colonialism. Many people are unaware of the striking affects and I would like to show the contrast in my research paper. Some of the main aspects that affect Africa today as a result of colonialism are: economic, political and social aspects. These are the main aspects that will be focused on in my research.*The annotated bibliography is attached below to help you with the idea and the focus of the paper.*

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Annotated bibliography: Ways in Which Colonization Affects Present Day Africa
Ocheni, S., & Nwankwo, B. C. (2012). Analysis of colonialism and its impact in
Africa. Cross-Cultural Communication, 8(3), 46.
Ocheni and Nwankwo assert modern Africa was impacted by colonialism in two major
dimensions which entail the social and economic dimensions. In the social dimension
encompasses the negative effects of education on the African social life as well as the negative
cultural impacts. On the other hand, with regard to economic effects, the authors capitalize on
analyzing the impact of colonialism on the African infrastructure, trade, and technology. as
such, Ocheni and Nwankwo contend that colonialism takes the larger responsibility in the
African underdevelopment which is magnified by the poor technological state of most African
states. The authors argue that the focus of colonialism was to essentially train clerks, artisans,
interpreters as well produce inspectors which were mainly for the purpose of helping the
colonizers advance in exploiting the African resources contrary to aiming at developing
education geared towards establishing industrialization in the continent of Africa. With respect to
the interacting effects of colonialism effects to African technology and education, the author
concludes this point by clarifying that colonial education resulted to distortion and disarticulation
of the African indigenous education pattern which was firmly founded on the African
technology. Secondly and concerning the African economic effects of colonialism, Ocheni and
Nwankwo point out at disarticulation of the African economy. To support this discourse, the
authors argue that colonialism distorted the African economic pattern of development by
compelling the colony to focus on production of goods that were purely meant for exports; this
resulted to the abandonment of African food production that was meant to feed the growing
population. The resulting challenges were food shortages as well as the escalation in food prices.
To date, modern Africa still suffers from the colonial impacts of poor technology, food
insecurity, and the rising commodity prices.
The relevance of this article to my paper is based on its assertion that colonialism has had
profound negative effects to Africa which continue to ail the continent up to date.
Settles, J. D. (1996). The impact of colonialism on African economic development.
The article by settles centers its argument on the negative economic effects that Africa
suffered in the chains of colonialism. Settles in the article asserts that initial economic status of
Africa before colonialism was progressive and it was only after the invasion by colonizers that
Africa lost its economic firmness or rather stability despite having initially succeeded even in the
international trade. For instance, in the pharaoh’s era in ancient Egypt, Songhai, Ghana, and Mali
had international trading systems that saw taxation of foreign trade for purposes of financing
government expenditures. The countries also largely depended on gold trading for wealth
expansion. Nevertheless, as the author argues, this economic progress came to diminish with
colonialism whose major objective of colonizing was to maximize their economic benefit at the
lowest price possible. Of key indicator of the goal of colonialism was the Berlin conference
which capitalized in the partition of Africa and formation of European economic policies that
were guided towards controlling African territories that indicated significant economic growth
and development. Essentially, the Europe industrialization was rapidly growing which triggered
the need for colonization to meet the industrial need for raw materials. Settles further asserts that
subjugation of the African economy was not the only goal of colonialism but also the ability to
establish control of the local economy from the African rulers. Meaning that it was none of the
concerns of African colonizers to improve the production methodology or strengthen the
economy but rather to take advantage of Africa. An illustration of this is the British opposition of
general development of plantations for palm oil in Nigeria despite the fact that the collection
method that was largely used in palm oil production was wasteful in addition to producing poor
quality oil. Settles again asserts that their institution of trade controls by the colonial powers to
limit colonial imports to those from the colonizing power and also restricted exports to the same
market. Settles argument in the article reflects the origin of the economically struggling Africa in
the modern age.
The argument that economic deterioration of Africa resulted from colonialism will
strengthen the argument of my may paper on ways in Which Colonization Affects Present Day
Africa particularly on the economic dimension.
Patrick Ziltener, Daniel Kiinsler (2007). The Impact of Colonialism.
Patrick and Daniel on their article on the impact of colonialism, they assert three
dimensions (political, economic and social) that colonialism impacted Africa with. With regard
to the political dimension, the authors argue that one of the major effects of colonialism was the
political centralization of colonies which lacked central governments. The British indirect rule a
vital example to this as it focused on promoting local despotism or dictatorship by permitting
local traditional rulers to be ‘rent-seekers extraordinaire’; this form of ruling promoted coercion
and cruelty in the African colonial governance. Concerning the economic impact, like the other
authors, Patrick and Daniela argue that outflow of colonial resources was the order of the day for
the African colonies. For instance, the African plantations were used by colonizers to channel
raw materials to their industries in Europe. Britain had a system renowned as ‘Home Charges’
that effected official funds transfers from colonies to their central administration in Britain. With
regard to social impacts, the authors point out alienation was what was majorly suffered by
Africa in colonialism; this not only entailed emptying the brains of the natives of all form and
content but also oppression and distortion.
This argument in this article is vital to the development of my paper in the sense that it
will help me develop a substantial argument on Ways in Which Colonization Affects Present
Day Africa in a broader perspective that encompasses the key aspects of human life entailing
political, economic and social aspects.
Ejimofor, C. O. (1987). British Colonial Objectives and Policies in Nigeria, The Roots of Confl
ict. Onitsha, Nigeria: African FEP Publisher Ltd.
Gana, A. T. (1985). The state in Africa: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. International Political
Science Review, 6(1), 115-132..
Mamdani, M. (2018). Citizen and subject: Contemporary Africa and the legacy of late
colonialism. Princeton University Press.
Ocheni, S., & Nwankwo, B. C. (2012). Analysis of colonialism and its impact in Africa. CrossCultural Communication, 8(3), 46.
Patrick Ziltener, & Daniel Kiinsler (2007).The Impact of Colonialism.
Settles, J. D. (1996). The impact of colonialism on African economic development.

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